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byUGC is a scholarly article that discusses several types of pollutionranging from air, water, soil, noise and marine to thermal pollution.All these types of pollution have their different causes, effects aswell as control measures. Besides, there are several causes, effectsand control measures of solid waste management of both industrial andurban wastes. Environmental and pollution control is a collectiveresponsibility whereby every individual has the responsibility ofkeeping the world a better place (UGC, 111).

Accordingto the article, air pollution is as a result of the presence ofunwanted gaseous or solid particles in the air. Air pollutantsinclude carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, sulfur oxides, lead,particulates and nitrogen oxides. Air pollution can be curbed by twomain methods effluent control and preventive methods such astreating of harmful gasses before releasing into the atmosphere byindustries and doing away with unworthy road vehicles that release somuch gasses into the air.

Also,the article indicates that water pollution can be caused by releasinguntreated sewage into water, going for short and long calls in watersources and spilling of oil into water sources (UGC, 215). Waterpollution affects both aquatic life and human life since water plantsand animals, as well as people, suffer directly when there are oilspills. For that reason, water pollution can be controlled throughtreatment of sewage before releasing into water bodies, use oflatrines for calls of nature instead of water sources and treatingwater sources immediately instances such as oil spills occurs.

Soilpollution is mainly caused by erosion, which takes away the fertiletopsoil and leaves the surface bare, exposed to blowing the wind andrunning water (UGC, 131). Through soil erosion, farm soil may not beas productive as it should be, and for that reason, to control soilpollution, people need to work on controlling erosion. Soil erosioncan be controlled through the construction of gabions. Also, plantingof trees and other cover crops on farms that are left bare can helpcontrol soil erosion.

Thearticle goes further to explain that marine pollution encompasses theaddition of substances directly or indirectly to the marineenvironment. The pollution is hazardous to human life, lowers qualityof seawater and obstructs marine activities. However, marinepollution can be controlled through the construction of sewagetreatment plants to cut down on demand for biological oxygen of thefinal toxic product before it is eventually released to the receivingsources of water. In the case of oil spills, offshore oil productionplants need to be moved a little offshore so that there is no directpollution of the marine environment.

Noisepollution is the increased unwanted sound that is harmful to theears, and it has become a common phenomenon everywhere. Noisepollution is harmful as it distracts people and denies them comfort.Noise pollution can be controlled by playing music to the permittedlevels (UGC, 141). On the other hand, thermal pollution involves thedischarge as well as the release of warm water into water bodies.Therefore, this kind of pollution can be controlled through passingthe hot, heated water via a cooling water pond or just a coolingtower immediately it is discharged from the main condenser. Thearticle concludes by covering solid waste management through methodssuch as source reduction, recycling, and proper solid waste disposal.


UGC..Ugc.ac.in.http://www.ugc.ac.in/oldpdf/modelcurriculum/Chapter5.pdf.Retrieved on 21 March 2017. 2004.