Primary Sources

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PrimarySources

Broomhall,Susan, ed.&nbspGenderand Emotions in Medieval and Early Modern Europe: Destroying Order,Structuring Disorder.Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2015.

Theauthor highlights that although women took a central part of theissues emanating the Civil War, children were also an integralcomponent of the war dogma. The structuring purposes shaped up theirroles that were inclined to gender and other group activities`affiliation1.The social basic set up in the surrounding communities affected thebehavioral role of children.

Spruill,Marjorie Julian, Valinda W. Littlefield, and Joan Marie Johnson,eds.&nbspSouthCarolina women: Their lives and times.Vol. 3. University of Georgia Press, 2012.

Thebook reiterates on how South Carolina women stand up for their rightsamidst oppression and racial regression realized in the event of theCivil War. Their children are tagged alongside to help act as theopinion shapers.

Gordon,Linda, ed.&nbspWomen,the state, and welfare.University of Wisconsin Pres, 2012.

Theauthor highlights on how political affiliation realized during theCivil War affected the reasoning of white women. It prompted them tobe more aggressive and look into opportunities to adventure in duringthe war period. They started fighting child abuse cases based on thefamilial assumptions2.The act paved the way for most of the children to be heard during theadversity times. Furthermore, many children sprang out to take on thejunior level leadership roles to act as a template to the communitiesas a way to bring peace and restore the fabric of the societiescaught up in the war.

Allyn,David.&nbspMakelove, not war: the sexual revolution: an unfettered history.Routledge, 2016.

Davidextrapolates on how sexual revolution had gained its roots in theevent of Civil Wars. The trend also affected the niche occupied bychildren. Their roles and revolutionary acts alongside other leaderswere redefined3.The sexual struggle of the youths was redefined and used to reprintthe United States which marked other titles related to the sexualrevolution.

Liskey,Amanda C. &quotThe Effect of the American Civil War on itsChildren.&quot (2014).

Theauthor compiles historical studies, memoirs, and diaries to highlighton how the American Civil War impacted on the children. The boys wereleft to take charge of their families after the death of theirparents4.Additionally, they endured the loss of property, family fear,disruptions. Some of them ended up dropping out of schools as aresult of hardships.

Lindsey,Linda L.&nbspGenderroles: A sociological perspective.Routledge, 2015.

Lindseyexplains in the book that sociological perspectives shaped up thegender roles and active participation of children in makingdeliberate decisions during the era of Civil War. The book furtherreiterates that children became stereotypes during the period. Theywere fully enshrined in relativism and therefore fell victim of mostcircumstances of the Civil War.

Cohen,Dara Kay. &quotFemale combatants and the perpetration of violence:wartime rape in the Sierra Leone Civil War.&quot&nbspWorldPolitics&nbsp65,no. 03 (2013): 383-415.

Theauthor narrows down to give a comprehensive analysis of the situationof Sierra Leone Civil War where women and children are the primaryculprits of the Civil War. Although women are regarded as docile andineffective when it comes to matters of liberation, this casescenario proves otherwise5.The children in this case scenarios battled in the field withdifferent combatants during the Civil War.

McCabe,Janice, Emily Fairchild, Liz Grauerholz, Bernice A. Pescosolido, andDaniel Tope. &quotGender in twentieth-century children’s books:Patterns of disparity in titles and central characters.&quot&nbspGender&amp Society&nbsp25,no. 2 (2011): 197-226.

Thebook highlights on the gender disparity and how it affected theactive contribution of children in the mitigation of Civil War. Theauthor uses various captions and vivid descriptions to extrapolate onhow different levels of disparity increased the inclination of thechildren to the standard dogma of the community. They were regardedas the highly vulnerable group and the minority faction in the warcrisis.

Akresh,Richard, Philip Verwimp, and Tom Bundervoet. &quotCivil war, cropfailure, and child stunting in Rwanda.&quot&nbspEconomicDevelopment and Cultural Change&nbsp59,no. 4 (2011): 777-810.

Authorsshed light on some of the effects of Civil War in Rwanda and how itaffected the gender roles of children in the region. The geographicdemarcations and the inbound logistics gave rise to the formation ofcohorts6.The gender roles of the children were thus enshrined in the newgroup. This hampered their elaborate and efficient roles during theCivil Wars.

Leavitt,Lewis A., and Nathan A. Fox.&nbspOfwar and violence on children.Psychology Press, 2014.

Leavittalongside other authors give views on how the Civil War impactedpsychologically on the children caught in the scourge. Their genderroles during the war were diminished. They formed a minority groupwith a high vulnerability index following the loss of their belovedones, close relatives, siblings and even parents7.The book is highlighted in different parts, narrowing down to how tothe psychological effects.

SecondarySources

Betancourt,Theresa S., Ivelina I. Borisova, Marie De La Soudière, and JohnWilliamson. &quotSierra Leone’s Child Soldiers: War Exposures andMental Health Problems by Gender.&quot The Journal of adolescenthealth: official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine.July 2011. Accessed March 15, 2017.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3124662/

Thearticle highlights on a retrospective view of the Sierra Leone`schild soldiers. The onset of the Civil War impacted significantlyamong the children of the country8.It marked a revolution phase where many children resorted to joiningthe military training for the acquisition of more skills.

BroneStewart, and Kate D. &quotThe Change in Gender Roles during theCivil War.&quot The American People to 1865. Accessed March 15,2017.https://ctlsites.uga.edu/hist2111-wolf2015/2015/11/27/the-change-in-gender-roles-during-the-civil-war/

Brownin his article gives an insight into the change in gender roleselicited by the occurrence of Civil War. The long held perspectivehad amassed the children that gender roles were only aligned to menand women9.However, the offset of the Civil War opened leeways into the childrenrevolutionary schemes where intermittent breakthroughs regardingradicalization were realized.

SusanGrayzel. &quotChanging lives: gender expectations and roles duringand after World War One.&quot The British Library. December 09,2013. Accessed March 15, 2017.https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/changing-lives-gender-expectations.

Thearticle gives a comparative analysis of the gender expectations andthe roles realized during the Civil War and afterward. The role ofchildren in the Civil War is also clearly outlined, touching keyelementary areas. As men and women were brought to the battle zone,so did their children brought alongside.

Aning,Emmanuel Kwesi. &quotGender and Civil War Case of Liberia andSierra Leone.&quot September 20, 2007. Accessed March 16, 2017.

Theauthor sheds light on the effect of Civil War and the role ofchildren by highlighting case scenarios of Liberia and Sierra Leone.The increased gender studies navigate through the role of childrenand the subsequent contingencies which apply for the same10.Emmanuel posits that gender role displayed by children forms agreater portion of the wars and mitigation strategies.

Chwartz,Marcie. &quotChildren in the Civil War.&quot Civil War Trust.Accessed March 15, 2017.http://www.civilwar.org/education/history/children-in-the-civil-war/?referrer=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2F.

Thearticle dates back to the niche occupied by children in the CivilWar. The author describes that the children were enthusiastic andform a critical part of the Civil War society. For example, in theUnited States of America, children dominated the population11.They played an essential role in supporting the fight, giving thesoldiers more courage, and even took arms with their elders to aidthem in the war.

IllinoisUniversity. &quotIllinois during the Civil War.&quot Accessed March16, 2017.

Thearticle source explains on how Civil War destabilized many Illinoisfamilies. As a result, most families were forced to migrate to seekfor more cool and safe places12.Children were brought alongside their mothers, providing them withthe liberty to explore more on the hidden characteristics of theCivil War.

MiddleTennessee and got out to find a mitigation pro. &quotWomen and theCivil War.&quot Accessed March 16, 2017.

Thesource summarizes on the Middle Tennessee situation during the stagesof the Civil War. Women and children stood tall and soughtclarification on pertinent issues that infringed their human rights.

Bibliography

Akresh,Richard, Philip Verwimp, and Tom Bundervoet. &quotCivil war, cropfailure, and child stunting in Rwanda.&quot&nbspEconomicDevelopment and Cultural Change&nbsp59,no. 4 (2011): 777-810.

Allyn,David.&nbspMakelove, not war: the sexual revolution: an unfettered history.Routledge, 2016

Aning,Emmanuel Kwesi. &quotGender and Civil War Case of Liberia andSierra Leone.&quot September 20, 2007. Accessed March 16, 2017.

Betancourt,Theresa S., Ivelina I. Borisova, Marie De La Soudière, and JohnWilliamson. &quotSierra Leone’s Child Soldiers: War Exposures andMental Health Problems by Gender.&quot The Journal of adolescenthealth: official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine.July 2011. Accessed March 15, 2017.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3124662/

BroneStewart, and Kate D. &quotThe Change in Gender Roles during theCivil War.&quot The American People to 1865. Accessed March 15,2017.https://ctlsites.uga.edu/hist2111-wolf2015/2015/11/27/the-change-in-gender-roles-during-the-civil-war/

Broomhall,Susan, ed.&nbspGenderand Emotions in Medieval and Early Modern Europe: Destroying Order,Structuring Disorder.Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2015.

Chwartz,Marcie. &quotChildren in the Civil War.&quot Civil War Trust.Accessed March 15, 2017.http://www.civilwar.org/education/history/children-in-the-civil-war/?referrer=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2F.

Cohen,Dara Kay. &quotFemale combatants and the perpetration of violence:wartime rape in the Sierra Leone Civil War.&quot&nbspWorldPolitics&nbsp65,no. 03 (2013): 383-415.

Gordon,Linda, ed.&nbspWomen,the state, and welfare.University of Wisconsin Pres, 2012.

IllinoisUniversity. &quotIllinois during the Civil War.&quot Accessed March16, 2017.

Leavitt,Lewis A., and Nathan A. Fox.&nbspThepsychological effects of war and violence on children.Psychology Press, 2014.

Liskey,Amanda C. &quotThe Effect of the American Civil War on itsChildren.&quot (2014).

McCabe,Janice, Emily Fairchild, Liz Grauerholz, Bernice A. Pescosolido, andDaniel Tope. &quotGender in twentieth-century children’s books:Patterns of disparity in titles and central characters.&quot&nbspGender&amp society&nbsp25,no. 2 (2011): 197-226.

MiddleTennessee and got out to find a mitigation pro. &quotWomen and theCivil War.&quot Accessed March 16, 2017.

Spruill,Marjorie Julian, Valinda W. Littlefield, and Joan Marie Johnson,eds.&nbspSouthCarolina women: Their lives and times.Vol. 3. University of Georgia Press, 2012.

SusanGrayzel. &quotChanging lives: gender expectations and roles duringand after World War One.&quot The British Library. December 09,2013. Accessed March 15, 2017.https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/changing-lives-gender-expectations.

1 Broomhall, Susan, ed.&nbspGender and Emotions in Medieval and Early Modern Europe: Destroying Order, Structuring Disorder. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2015.

2 Gordon, Linda, ed.&nbspWomen, the state, and welfare. University of Wisconsin Pres, 2012.

3 Allyn, David.&nbspMake love, not war: the sexual revolution: an unfettered history. Routledge, 2016

4 Liskey, Amanda C. &quotThe Effect of the American Civil War on its Children.&quot (2014).

5 Cohen, Dara Kay. &quotFemale combatants and the perpetration of violence: wartime rape in the Sierra Leone Civil War.&quot&nbspWorld Politics&nbsp65, no. 03 (2013): 383-415.

6 Akresh, Richard, Philip Verwimp, and Tom Bundervoet. &quotCivil war, crop failure, and child stunting in Rwanda.&quot&nbspEconomic Development and Cultural Change&nbsp59, no. 4 (2011): 777-810.

7 Leavitt, Lewis A., and Nathan A. Fox.&nbspThe psychological effects of war and violence on children. Psychology Press, 2014.

8 Betancourt, Theresa S., Ivelina I. Borisova, Marie De La Soudière, and John Williamson. &quotSierra Leone`s Child Soldiers: War Exposures and Mental Health Problems by Gender.&quot The long-held perspective had amassed the children July 2011. Accessed March 15, 2017. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3124662/

9 Brone Stewart, and Kate D. &quotThe Change in Gender Roles during the Civil War.&quot The American People to 1865. Accessed March 15, 2017. https://ctlsites.uga.edu/hist2111-wolf2015/2015/11/27/the-change-in-gender-roles-during-the-civil-war/

10 Aning, Emmanuel Kwesi. &quotGender and Civil War Case of Liberia and Sierra Leone.&quot September 20, 2007. Accessed March 16, 2017.

11 Chwartz, Marcie. &quotChildren in the Civil War.&quot Civil War Trust. Accessed March 15, 2017. http://www.civilwar.org/education/history/children-in-the-civil-war/?referrer=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2F.

12 Illinois University. &quotIllinois during the Civil War.&quot Accessed March 16, 2017.