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Dualisticthinking is a form of bias thinking where people take sides ondifferent social issues. It is an either this or that form ofthinking. People view things as either bad or good, wrong or right,conservative or liberal, and so forth. In this way of thinking,people must take sides. Most people consciously or unconsciously makedecisions based on this dualistic mindset (Brown). It is the kind ofmindset that supports prejudice. For example, on the contentiousdebate on same-sex marriages, people have taken sides—some supportit, and others oppose it.

Divinityof Marriage

DennisRainey and Bob Lepine, argue that marriage is a sacred and holy unioncreated by God. Meaning that marriage is a divine entity that man isnot supposed to be tamper with. Irrespective of what the law says,the natural order of things should not be changed. God had intendedmarriage to be a union between a man and a woman.

Theyargue that one of the purposes of marriage is to produce children.For the survival of any organism, it must be able to reproduce.Reproduction requires a woman and a man. Same-sex marriages do notsupport reproduction and procreation, and therefore they should notbe allowed. However, it should also be considered that, even thoughthey cannot reproduce, they can adopt children who would haveotherwise lacked a family.

FavorableEnvironment for Bringing up Children

Furthermore,Daniel King, argues that the same-sex marriages do not provide a goodenvironment for bringing up children. Two mothers, or two fathers,are not the best for raising children. Men and women are different,and their differences provide the best environment for raisingchildren. Children need the nurturing, careering, and comfort of amother. They also need the aggressiveness and strength of a father.

Thetwo genders give the child the best life skills compared tohomosexuals. As much as I agree with Daniel, sometimes children needunorthodox lifestyle to have a different perception in life and learnto appreciate the variation of things in nature. This enables them toeliminate dualistic thinking and prejudice.

Weakeningthe Institution of Marriage

JamesQ. Wilson (175–177), further argues that legal recognition ofsame-sex marriages would weaken the institution of marriage. It woulddestabilize the norm that grownups are expected to sacrificethemselves to stay in marriages for the sake of the children. Casesof divorces would increase, and more children will be lost due tolack of parental guidance and the future of the human racethreatened. If the law allows same-sex marriages, then parents mightargue that it is not a must they stay together, and thereforedivorce. The argument is valid. However, parents can still take careof their children even after divorcing.

Genderand Sexual Disorder

Childrenraised by same-sex parents tend to have gender and sexual disorders(Judith Stacey and Timothy Biblarz 159–183). For example, malechildren brought by lesbians tend to be less masculine compared thoseraised by a father and a mother. Their study also showed thatchildren raised by homosexual parents are sexually attracted tomembers of their gender (homoerotic). This shows that same-sexmarriages are eroding the essence of sexuality and its purpose.Homosexual attractions are based on the sexual attraction forpleasure and do not benefit humanity or society in any way—it isonly for their selfish needs. Such a retrogressive and selfish way oflife should be discouraged.

Violationof Children’s Rights

Same-sexmarriages are violating children’s rights (Petri Paavola).Naturally, children are expected to be born in a heterosexualmarriage, consisting of a mother and a father. Naturally, a mancannot give birth, and a woman cannot conceive without a man.Therefore, children born or adopted and raised by homosexual partnerswill be deprived one of their parents. It is their right to have bothparents, however, in this case, they are deprived one of them.Therefore, violating their human rights.

Gaymarriages also affect the children`s’ growth and development. Forexample, the relationship between a girl and mother is veryimportant, the girl looks up to her mother for advice and as a rolemodel (for her to become a woman she follows in her mother’sfootsteps). What happens when she is brought up in a gay familywithout a mother to emulate, relate with, and learn from? Gay parentscannot play the role of a mother, neither can lesbians play the roleof a father. Same-sex marriages should not be called marriages, butunions: they do not fit the definition of marriage.

Conclusion

Inmost social cases such as the one discussed above, the dualisticthinking cannot be avoided. People must take stances it isimpossible to support both points of view. Some support same-sexmarriages, while others oppose, basing their arguments on theirself-beliefs and attitudes. In this case, same-sex marriages are acontroversy, because some people feel that the institution ofmarriages is threatened, while others feel they are discriminatedbased on their sexual orientation.

WorksCited

Brown,Michael. “Dualistic vs. Non-Dualistic Thinking.”. Web. 28 Mar.2017.

DanielKing. “14 Reasons the Supreme Court Got It Wrong on Gay Marriage —Charisma News.” 2015. Web. 28 Mar. 2017.

DennisRainey, and Bob Lepine. “Why We Oppose Same-Sex Marriage.” FamilyLife,2017. Web. 28 Mar. 2017.

JamesQ. Wilson. “The Marriage Problem.” Perennial(2003): 175–177. Print.

JudithStacey, and Timothy Biblarz. “(How) Does the Sexual Orientation ofParents Matter?” AmericanSociological Review66 (2001). Print.

PetriPaavola. “Harmful Effects of Gay Marriage in Society.” PravdaReport,2014. Web. 28 Mar. 2017.

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HISTORY

Costcois a chain of warehouse clubs which started on 12th July 1976 asPrice Club, by Sol and Robert Price. It began as a clubhousededicated for business shoppers. The company was located in San DiegoCalifornia, in a remodeled airplane hangar. By 1979, the company hadgrown to 900 employees, a profit margin of $1 million and about200,000 members.

In1982, two executive members of the Price Club, Jim Sinegal, and JeffBrotman came up with plans to start a new wholesale club business. In1983, it became operational in Seattle, and within two years,expanded to new locations, such as Washington, Portland, Spokane, andOregon (“Costco History”). From then, the company has beengrowing and expanding to become the second largest warehouse in theworld.

VISIONAND MISSION

Thecompany’s vision statement is “to become a place where efficientbuying and operating practices give members access to unmatchedsavings” (Lombardo). The vision statement is made up of thefollowing points:

1.Unmatched savings

2.Membership access

3.Efficient operations

Thevision statement ensures that customers get value for their money, bycost minimizations through efficiency in its operations. Costminimizations also ensure unmatched savings. Membership accessensures members of strategic business operations that minimizeoperational costs and enable discount offers that attract a largecustomer base.

Toachieve this vision, they have a mission statement which at theprovision of better products and a low price to their members(Lombardo). The mission statement can be summarized as:

1.Provision of lowest prices as possible

2.Provision of quality goods and services

3.Giving of offers continuously

Thismission statement shows that the company markets itself by the use ofquality products and services, as its selling point. The company’smission statement and vision statement complement and therefore aregood for its nature of business. However, it needs to release andofficial vision statement to guide both investors and employees intheir day-to-day operations.

Listof board members and executive officers

Name Age Title

JeffreyH. Brotman 73 Chairman

WalterCraig Jelinek 62 President, Director, and Chiefexecutive officer

RichardA. Galanti60Director, executive vice president,and CFO

JamesD. Sinegal 79 Director

JohnW.Meisenbach 80 Director

RichardM.Libenson 73Director

JohnW. Stanton 60 Independent Director

MaryAgnes Wilderotter 62 Independent Director

JeffreyScott Raikes 58 Independent Director

SusanL. Decker 54 Independent Director

HamiltonEvans James 64 Lead Independent Director

DanielJ. Evans 91 Independent Director

CharlesThomas Munger 92 Independent Director

Alist of executive officers

RogerA Campbell Senior Vice President

PaulG. Moulton Executive Vice president and chiefinformation officer

RicahardC. Chavez Senior VP-business development

JohnD.MillerSenior VP

TimothyL.Rose Executive VP

JeffreyElliott Financial Planning

BUSINESSSTRUCTURE USED

Tomeet different business needs different organization components needto be integrated. These components are integrated via a businessstructure. As for Costco, they have designed a business structurethat ensures an efficient and effective management of its operationsin its different market segments (both in the U.S. and overseas).

Thecompany uses a weak matrix organizations structure, which involvestwo structures—a strong organization structure and a secondarydivision structure. Using this structure, employees are groupedaccording to their functions, while their business componentsaccording to their market and market (Andrew Thompson).

Thisform of business structure supports a wide control of all of itsbusiness components and enhances their efficient and effectivemanagement of. Though not flexible, it offers the company a goodmanagement structure with regards to its types of operations (AndrewThompson).

COMPANYCULTURE

Thetraditions, habits, and values among employees are established by acompany’s organizational culture. In the case of Costco, itsbusiness culture has enabled it to satisfy its clients through theexcellent service by its employees. Their business culture is basedon customer satisfaction and employee morale.

Thistype of organizations culture has enabled the company to withstandcompetition from other similar companies. It is a good businessculture (by creating a good working environment for its employees,they, in turn, offer good services to clients) (Meyer).

CODEOF BUSINESS ETHICS

Thefollowing are Costco code of ethics:

1.Obeying the law

2.Taking care of their members

3.Taking care of their employees (through competitive wages, aworking environment free of discrimination and fun work environments)

4.Respecting their supplies

5.Rewarding their shareholders

SOCIALRESPONSIBILITY

Costcosocial responsibility is implemented through their support inchildren’s hospitals. Each year, through their members andemployees, they raise funds through a children’s Miracle NetworkCampaign to assist about fourteen hospitals in Canada. Furthermore,they have been donating backpacks to in-need schools within theirproximity since 1993. They also have a Reading program whereemployees volunteer to tutor elementary grade pupils who cannot read(“The Costco Story”).

ENVIRONMENTALSUSTAINABILITY

Costcohas an environmentally friendly approach to their businessoperations. They pay close attention how their products impact theenvironment, based on how they are produced and packaged. Forexample, they have ensured that the palm oil used in their KirklandSignature I produced in a responsible and sustainable manner by beingmembers of the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO)(“Environment”)

TheFrequency of Evaluation of strategies. Costcohardly changes its strategies and is fond of using the same strategyfor a long period. Their low cost discounted pricing strategy hasworked for a long period to attract a large customer base andincreased profits. Although it is important to change strategies inbusiness, if one strategy works well, there is no harm in maintainingit (Kelly and Williams 239).

InternalAnalysis

FACTORSAFFECTING THE COMPANY’S INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT

Strengths

  1. Strong market presence: The company’s market presence is strong because of it is popular among consumers and have a strong membership club chain. They have managed to create a brand name that is popular with its customers and members.

  2. Expansive supply chain: Their wide supply chain enables them to archive economies of scale, therefore reducing their operational costs.

  3. Kirkland Signature Brand: Costco signature brand is popular with their clients and customers, who view it as a mark of quality.

Weaknesses

  1. A low product mix: compared to its competitors, such as Walmart, Costco product mix limited, which means that consumers with different tastes and preferences might not find what they want at their stores, and this reduces their revenues.

  2. Members only business strategy: This type of business strategy limits other shoppers from buying from their shops easily, this in effect reduces their sales and profit margins.

  3. Low-profit margins: due to their generic business strategy, they are faced with a problem of low-profit margins, and limits their price adjustments.

Table1. Internal factor evaluation matrix (IFE)

Internal factors

Weights

0.0 to 1.0

Rating

1 to 4

Weighted Score

Internal Strengths

Strong market presence

A wide supply chain

A strong brand name(Kirkland Signature)

0.2

0.15

0.25

4

3

4

0.8

0.45

1

Internal weaknesses

Low profit margins

Members only

Low product mix

0.12

0.18

0.1

2

1

2

0.24

0.18

0.2

Total

1

2.87

DivisionalAssessment

ALLOCATIONOF RESOURCES RECOMMENDATIONS ACROSS DIVISIONS AND SEGMENTS

Morefunds should be allocated in the stars since they are high growthsegments and have a high market share. An attempt should be made tohold shares since the reward is a cash cow. Cash cows, on the otherhand, have more market shares and a low growth rate. Because of thelow growth rate in this segment, investments should be low to keepprofits high (Stern and George Stalk).

Dogsshould be avoided at all costs if it does not bring in cash, theyshould be liquidated. They usually have low market share and growth.Costco should be aware of expensive turn-around strategies. Questionmarks, on the other hand, have high demands and low returns oninvestments due to low market shares. Care must be taken on questionmarks since they can take a lot of money later, with a slow growthrate, turn into dogs (Stern and George Stalk). This is illustrated infigure 3 below.

Figure3. BCG matrix for Costco. Source (Sternand George Stalk)

COSTCO’SSPACE MATRIX

ASPACE (Strategic Positioning and ACtion Evaluation) matrix is a toolused in business management to analyze the type of strategy that acompany should pursue. With a strong competitive position, Costcoshould use this space matrix to become more aggressive, as shown infigure 4 below, and use its internal strengths to develop a marketdevelopment strategy, which includes product development. The mostimportant components of the SPACE matrix are financial strengths andcompetitive advantages. External factors are industry strength andenvironmental stability.

Figure4. A space matric for Costco. Source (MaxiPedia)

ExternalAnalysis

FACTORSAFFECTING THE COMPANY’S EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT

Opportunities

  1. External strategic factors are opportunities for a business to change its business strategies and expand. For Costco some of the external strategic factors are:

  2. Diversification: Costco can diversify their business by adding new services, or better still, new businesses I another industry. With the current technological advancement, this is easy.

  3. Product mix expansion: to be competitive, Costco needs to increase its product mix, so as to have more variety for their customers. Product mix expansion will enable them to compete effectively with their competitors such as Walmart who have a high product mix.

  4. Expand to new locations: With the expansion of high growth economies, Costco can expand and open a new warehouse in these high growing economies, to increase its market share.

Weaknesses/Threats

Theseare external factors that have the potential to reduce a company’sperformance. They include:

  1. Online competition: due to technological advancement, many small firms are selling their products online at lower prices, and therefore compete with Costco, reducing their customer base

  2. The trend on animal rights: some of Costco products are animal products. The animal rights trends threaten to reduce the company’s demand for this type of products.

  3. Retail stores competition: Retail stores, such as Walmart create a lot of competition for Costco, and this reduces their sales volume and affects their profit margins.

Table2. External Factor Evaluation Matrix (EFE)

External factors

Weights

0.0 to 1.0

Rating

1 to 4

Weighted score

Opportunities

Increasing product mix

Diversification

Expansion of business locations

0.2

0.18

0.27

3

3

3

0.6

0.54

0.81

Threats

Retail stores competition

Online competition

Animal rights trend

0.13

0.17

0.05

3

4

2

0.39

0.68

0.1

Total

1

3.39

CompetitiveAssessment

COMPETITIVEPOSITION WITHIN THE INDUSTRY

Costcois ranked as the second largest retailer in the world by the NationalRetail Federation (NRF), as shown in figure 1. In 2009 and 2014, itwas the fastest growing company among the top ten retailers. Its maincompetitors are, Walmart (which is ranked first), Kroger (which isranked third), Schwarz Unternehmens Treuhand KG (ranked fourth),Britain’s Tesco (ranked fifth), and Carrefour SA of France (rankedsixth). In 2015, it was ranked as the 18thlargest firm in the world by Fortune 500(Soni).

Figure1. Costco position in the global retail market. Source (Soni)

COSTCO’SCPM.

CPMis the cost per a thousand used during advertising. For Costco, it is$17.19, which is a very low value compared to other organizationssuch as sunset, which have a CPM of about $117.02 (Frank Colonno). Itis shown in figure 2 below.

Figure2. Costco CPM in relation to other companies in 2017. Source (FrankColonno).

COSTCO’SPERCEPTUAL MAP

Figure5. A perceptual mapping of Costco. Source (Viviana Laperchia)

Aperceptual map is used to gauge a customer’s perception on a givenproduct compared to competing brands. This map is used by consumersto make purchasing decisions (Pride and Ferrell 306). For the case ofCostco, it is positioned above Sam’s Club and next to Walmart.Costco provides basic products that are functional and meet family’sneeds more than Sam’s Club and Walmart. However, it is not astrendy as Walmart, Wimer, Sears and the TheBay.

FinancialAssessment

CURRENTFINANCIAL POSITION

By28th August 2016, the company had a total revenue of about $118,719,000,000, and a gross profit of $15,818,000,000. The sellinggeneral and administrative expenses were at $12,068,000,000, and nonerecurring expenses were at $78,000,000. Net income from, continuingoperations was at $2,350,000,000, while the net income applicable toshares was $2,350,000,000 (“Growth, Profitability, and FinancialRatios for Costco Wholesale Corp (COST) from Morningstar.com”).

FINANCIALRATIOS

Forthe same year, Costco had a gross margin of 13.02% of the totalsales, and an operating margin of 3.12 of the total sales. Thethree-year average of their revenue was at 4.13%, 9.52% of theoperating income, and 11.63 of their net income, as of 2016. The cashand short-term investments were at 14.26%, and their total currentassets stood at 45.89% (“Growth, Profitability, and FinancialRatios for Costco Wholesale Corp (COST) from Morningstar.com”).

Recommendations

Thefollowing strategies are used by Costco to be more competitive(Ashley Lutz):

  1. They do not advertise, which is an advantage for them since they do not spend a lot of money on advertisements, and this allows them to reduce the price of their products and increase their profit margins.

  2. They also sell a fewer number of items compared to their competitors such as Wal-Mart. This strategy enables them to increase their sales, and give discounts on their products.

  3. To retain the best workers who keep customers coming back to their stores, they pay their employees better compared to their competitors. Customers are usually after value for their money, convenience, and a great customer experience.

  4. Their main strategy is to increase the volume of sales so as to have better pay for their employees and benefits compared to their competitors. Also, to provide better discounts on their products.

  5. Costco uses an efficient business model and a strong member’s loyalty which provides it with a competitive advantage over its competitors.

Thesestrategies seem to be very good and effective in their operations. Itis these strategies that have made them become one of the bestretailers in the world. Therefore, they should continue to pursuethem for the prosperity of their business.

RECOMMENDATIONS

  1. Costco online sales revenue is estimated to be 5% less than its total revenue (Team). This means that the company is not pursuing an e-commerce sales strategy. They are not exploiting the advantages of online commerce, despite the fact that they have an online presence in over six countries. A focus on its e-commerce channels will enhance their profitability and improve their growth prospects.

  2. Costco relies on selling a limited range of products, which works well to cut down cost and enables them to sell at low prices. However, what happens when customers change preference? They might end up with very low sales, and left with unwanted goods in large quantities. Therefore, they should diversify their product range to cushion themselves against sudden changes in customers’ preferences.

Table3. Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix for Costco. Source (MaxiPedia)

Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix for Costco

Alternative 1

Adopt e-commerce strategy

Alternative 2

Diversify their product range

Key factors

Weight

Attractiveness Score

Total Attractiveness Score

weight

Attractiveness Scores

Total Attractiveness Score

Strengths

Strong market presence

A wide supply chain

A strong brand name (Kirkland Signature)

0.2

0.15

0.25

4

3

4

0.8

0.45

1

0.15

0.2

0.1

4

3

4

0.6

0.6

0.4

Weaknesses

Low profit margins

Members only

Low product mix

0.12

0.18

0.1

2

1

2

0.24

0.18

0.2

0.28

0.1

0.17

2

2

2

0.56

0.2

0.34

Sum of weights

1

1

Opportunities

Increasing product mix

Diversification

Expansion of business locations

0.2

0.18

0.27

3

3

3

0.6

0.54

0.81

0.13

0.17

0.3

4

3

3

0.52

0.51

0.9

Threats

Retail store competition

Online competition

Animal rights trend

0.13

0.17

0.05

3

4

2

0.39

0.68

0.1

0.12

0.24

0.04

1

2

1

0.12

0.48

0.04

Sum of weights

1

1

Sum Total Attractiveness Score

5.99

&gt

5.25

Costcoearnings per share (EPS) in online sales was $1.24 in 2016 and $1.28in 2017. This shows that e-commerce has better prospects for thecompany in the future.

Figure6. Costco EPS. Source(HenryB. Tippie)

WorksCited

AndrewThompson. “Costco Wholesale’s Organizational Structure Analysis.”PanmoreInstitute,28 Oct. 2015. Web. 20 Mar. 2017.

AshleyLutz. “Costco’s Simple Strategy for Outperforming Walmart andTarget.” BusinessInsider.Web. 21 Mar. 2017.

“COSTCompany Profile &amp Executives – Costco Wholesale Corp. – WallStreet Journal.” Web. 20 Mar. 2017. “Costco History”. Web. 20Mar. 2017.

FrankColonno. “The Costco Connection – Media Kit (Lite) – 8.” Web. 21Mar. 2017.

“Growth,Profitability, and Financial Ratios for Costco Wholesale Corp (COST)from Morningstar.com.” Web. 21 Mar. 2017.

HenryB. Tippie. “Costco Wholesale Corp (COST).” 2016. Web.

Kelly,Marcella, and Chuck Williams. BUSN.Cengage Learning, 2017. Print.

Lombardo,Jessica. “Costco Wholesale’s Vision Statement &amp MissionStatement.” PanmoreInstitute,25 Oct. 2015. Web. 20 Mar. 2017.

MaxiPedia. “SPACE Matrix Strategic Management Method.” 2015. Web. 21Mar. 2017.

Meyer,Pauline. “Costco Wholesale’s Organizational CultureCharacteristics.” PanmoreInstitute,29 Oct. 2015. Web. 20 Mar. 2017.

Pride,William M., and O. C. Ferrell. Foundationsof Marketing.Cengage Learning, 2014. Print.

Soni,Phalguni. “An Investor’s Guide to Costco Wholesale: A GrowingRetailer.”, 2016. Web. 21 Mar. 2017.

Stern,Carl W., and George Stalk. “Perspective on Strategy from the BostonConsulting Group.” 2016. Web. 21 Mar. 2017.

Team,Trefis. “Should Costco Increase Focus On Its E-CommerceInitiatives?” Forbes.Web. 21 Mar. 2017.

“TheCostco Story.” Web. 20 Mar. 2017.

VivianaLaperchia. “Target Positioning and Creative Strategy.” 2014.Marketing.

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Ovariancancer accounts for about 4% of all cancers that affect women(Daftary19).In each year, about 2000 new cases are diagnosed. Most studies haveshown that patients with ovarian cancer have symptoms months beforetheir diagnosis. Some of the examples of ovarian cancer are Adnexalmasses that grow near the uterus (mostly in the ovary or thefallopian tube)(Gajjar,Ogden, and I.Mujahid).

Mostlythe spectrum of the conditions may be classified as either malignantor benign, and are from gynecologic or non-gynecologic sources. Thebenign masses are made up of ectopic pregnancy and ovarian cysts,while examples of malignant gynecologic masses include fallopian tubeand ovarian carcinomas. As for the non-gynecologic masses, whichinclude metastatic tumors and appendicitis, they originate from otherbody parts (Gajjar,Ogden, and I.Mujahid).

Thisdisease is characterized by multiple histological subtypes, and it isvery heterogeneous. Furthermore, it shows molecular diversity withinthe historical subtypes, within individual tumors, and betweendistinctly different tumors of a patient. Using molecularcharacterization, a characterization scheme has been developed forclassifying ovarian cancer as either type 1 or type 2 tumors(VeronicaRojas et al.).

MolecularClassification and Characterization

Recentstudies have found a diverse range of genomic variability, which isassociated with different ovarian cancer subtypes. This has aided informing a base for a more simplistic way of organizing the disease inrelation to its origin and clinical course. Compared to type 2ovarian cancer, type 1 has been less characterized by throughputsequencing studies. These studies have been supported by theexistence of genetic heterogeneity within and between ovarian cancerhistological subtypes. For example, new DNA sequencing studies haveshown the occurrence of germline and somatic mutations inrecombination of homologous genes in ovarian cancers that are notserious (VeronicaRojas et al. 6).

Eventhough ovarian cancer, such as epithelial ovarian cancer tumor, isclassified into either type 1 or 2 depending on the diseases tumorgrade and histology, it is expected that the advancement in molecularanalyses, which is possible due to more sophisticated RNA and DNAsequencing techniques, will provide an accurate classification basisin the future. More so, it might provide a more refinedclassification scheme for ovarian cancer based on their molecularcharacteristics. This will provide a more rigorous and detaileddisease model. For instance, the use of genomic profiling can be usedin further classification of ovarian tumors which have mixedhistology or undifferentiated—using histopathological analysis(VeronicaRojas et al. 6).

RiskFactors

Themost common risk factors are genetic syndromes which account forabout 10% to 12% of all ovarian cancer cases. Gene mutations about10% and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer accounts for 2% to3%. BRCA1/BRCA2 tumor suppressor gene mutations are some of the knowncauses of ovarian cancer syndrome.

Infamilies with a history of ovarian cancer cases, about 90% of themare due to BRCA mutations. However, due to incomplete penetrance ofBRCA1 and BRCA2, about 35% to 85% of BRCA carriers do not developovarian cancer (ChykeA. Doubeni, Anna R. B. Doubeni, And Allison E. Myers 938).

Otherrisk factors which are nongenetic are aging, obesity, andpostmenopausal hormonal therapy. Another factor to consider is thatof long term use of oral contraceptive by BRCA-mutation carriers. Itreduces their chances of getting ovarian cancer by about 50% (ChykeA. Doubeni, Anna R. B. Doubeni, And Allison E. Myers 938).

Signsand Symptoms

Ovariancancer symptoms are nonspecific and cannot easily be recognized ascancer symptoms (Fletcher718).Examples are, back pain, abdominal pain, urinary symptoms for about 3months, fatigue, and constipation. In a case study developed andcentered on a six-item symptom index, it was discovered that thepresence of any of the symptoms for 12 days in a given month for aperiod of 12 months, had a low sensitivity of early disease symptomsat about 56.7%, while late stage symptoms had a sensitivity of about79.5%. The symptoms were more specific for older women (50 years andabove) than young women (ChykeA. Doubeni, Anna R. B. Doubeni, and Allison E. Myers 940).

Diagnosis

Earlydiagnosis of ovarian cancer is very important since most of its signsand symptoms are detected at a late stage when it has alreadymatured. In addition, its symptomatic progression is not understoodwell enough to have a correct diagnosis. The survival rate of thelate stage in five years is about 30%, while those with earlydetection is 90% (LVet al. 5113).That of those with advanced-stage tumors is 17% to 28% (ChykeA. Doubeni, Anna R. B. Doubeni, and Allison E. Myers).

VEGFis frequently studied as an angiogenic factor in the diagnosis ofovarian cancer. And is widely considered an important factor in theprogression of ovarian cancer. From recent studies, it has beenproved that circulating VEGF accuracy in diagnosing ovarian cancer ismoderate, however, its diagnostic value is not widely accepted sincethe conclusions are inconsistent and conflicting (Lianget al. 1076).

Astudy done by LVet al, showed that the most diagnostic value in CTSL, OVX1, and TPA, is thejoint detection of TPA, and CA125. This joint detection improvessignificantly the diagnosis and detection of epithelial ovariancancer.

Treatment

Oneof the methods used for ovarian cancer treatment is the noequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasmas (NEAPPs). This method hasattracted a lot of attention in the medical field due to the factthat cells are not vacuum-compatible, and the method providesnegligible thermal cell damage: considering the appropriate tuning ofNEAPPs parameters and the experimental setup (Isekiet al.).

Isekiet al,did an experiment to test the effectiveness of NEAPP in the treatmentof ovarian cancer. They used two independent ovarian cancer celllines and treated them with a high flux NEAPP. The effects wereevaluated by use of proliferation and toxicity assays.The method managed to kill both strains of the cancer tumors, withoutdamaging plasma-treated fibroblast cells. This shows that NEAPP canbe used as an effective treatment of ovarian cancer.

Workscited

ChykeA. Doubeni, Anna R. B. Doubeni, And Allison E. Myers. “Diagnosisand Management of Ovarian Cancer.” AmericanFamily Physician93 (2016). Print.

Daftary,Shirish N. SelectedTopics in Obstetrics and Gynaecology-3: For Postgraudate andPractitioners.BI Publications Pvt Ltd, 2007. Print.

Fletcher,Christopher D. M. DiagnosticHistopathology of Tumors.Elsevier Health Sciences, 2013. Print.

Gajjar,Ketan, Gemma Ogden, and M. I.Mujahid. “Symptoms and Risk Factors ofOvarian Cancer: A Survey in PrimaryCare.” InternationalScholarly Research Network2012 (2012). Web.

Iseki,Sachiko et al. “Selective Killing of Ovarian Cancer Cells throughInduction of Apoptosis by Nonequilibrium Atmospheric PressurePlasma.” AppliedPhysics Letters(2012). Web.

Liang,Bin et al. “Circulating VEGF as a Biomarker for Diagnosis ofOvarian Cancer: A Systematic Review and a Meta-Analysis.”OncoTargetsand Therapy(2015). Print.

Lv,X.-L. et al. “The Application Value of the Detection of the Levelof Tissue Polypeptide Antigen, Ovarian Cancer Antigen X1, Cathepsin Land CA125 on the Diagnosis of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.” EuropeanReview for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences(2016). Print.

VeronicaRojas et al. “Molecular Characterization of Epithelial OvarianCancer: Implications for Diagnosis and Treatment.” Internationaljournal of molecular sciences(2016). Web.