Project ID Revision

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Rural Sociology is the study of social structure and problemsaffecting the rural areas. The conflicts arise on how the resources,agricultural and food materials are utilized in the rural areas.Other areas involved are environmental sociology, natural resourcessociology and demographic patterns. The paper will argue on ruralpeople economic opportunities basing the argument an evidencereported by Springer.

In the past 90 years, Southern Oregon was a region that was inhabitedby natural forests. The forests led to the development of sawmillinstitutions, which helped in the production of fuels before WorldWar II. It also helped in settlement of people from Rural West. Theresources aided in development of the local community. Lumbering wastheir daily activity and their only source of income, this developsthe idea of cultural tool kit (Brown and Shafft, 206).Theresources have been destroyed, which have resulted in the shutdown ofmore than 20 mills signaling the end of an era when people couldbenefit from the natural resources. The biggest sawmills were Readyand Rough and were facing the same challenge (Springer, 16). Thegovernment had introduced the endangered species act which aim was toprotect the spotted owl from becoming extinct. However, theconsequences were so painful to the local people. The region hasturned to be one of the poorest regions in Josephine County.Individual production decreases and they people cannot afford tosupport their families and pay taxes, hence the concept of socialreproduction is well portrayed. It has developed the aspect ofincreased inequality and vulnerality especially in the female gender.Females engage in immoral acts like prostitution to gain some income(Schafft, 11). Due to the reduction in revenue, it has led tosecurity department releasing two-thirds of their prisoners to remainwith the number that the prison could support due to the overstretched economies of scale. The freed inmates interactedwith other local people and raised the level of crime in this area.In this case, the aspect of differential association is developed(Brown and Shafft, 206). In addition, there is poor infrastructuredevelopment. The Republican Representative, Greg Walden, reported adestruction of jobs, economy and the revenues in general and referredthe County as lawless.

However, the House Republican provided a solution to the problem.They proposed for the restoration of Healthy Forests for HealthyCommunities Act. The act would require the county to use around 2million acres of land, which would be maintained by Oregon’sEnvironmental Laws for harvesting lumber. The bill was supported bymost of the Democrats. On the other hand, environmental groupsopposed it. The groups argued that separating such big pieces of landonly for timber would mean clear-cutting large steep slopes, whichwould destroy salmon and reduce the public values. In addition, thegroups argue that eventually the large trees would be depleted andthe region would be back to the unemployment crisis. The House passedthe bill. In addition, senior advisers recommended the United Statespresident to veto it. Once vetoed, then it would be hard forenvironmental groups to stop sales of timber and milling in theexcluded region. The involvement of the government has developed theconcept of structural society that is directly affiliated bypolitical factors. However, the bill did not take care of theendangered owl species and the destruction of natural resources. Itsolely benefited the rural people who would be employed at thesawmill factories. In addition, the proposal did not offer apermanent solution to the problem facing the rural people ofunemployment and low standards of living, which develop the conceptof relative poverty in this rural area. Trees would take quitea while to reach maturity and ready for harvesting, during thisperiod the rural people would be languishing in poverty.

In conclusion, rural sociology is viewed as a traditional act wherethe welfare of resources in the rural areas was safeguarded. However,there is a great need to embrace the idea of rural sociology. Ithelps in protecting the resources owned by a rural area andmaintaining them to increase their lifespan of serving the community.

Project ID revision

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Manypeople across the world live in poverty. Various factors andsituations expose individuals to poverty such as unemployment andsickness. The paper discusses various definitions of poverty and itsapplication in different scenarios.


Povertyin terms of income possession refers to a situation whereby afamily’s incomes cannot meet the federally developed thresholds.The identification of economic positions of different families isbased on the lowest acceptance level. For instance, income below onedollar per day shows extreme poverty. Moreover, poverty inconsideration of the absolute terms refers to the sum of money neededto satisfy basic needs including shelter, food, and clothing.Relative poverty is based on the economic status of individuals inthe society (Glennerster, 2002). People who fail to achieve theprevailing standards are said to be poor. Prior the lesson, Iunderstood poverty as the lack of a certain amount of money. However,I have learned that poverty does not necessarily mean lack of money.Economic status and source of income are factors that should be usedto identify and classify poverty levels.

ThePoverty Line

Americahas fought the issue of poverty for a long time. Measurement ofpoverty in the country is based on an established poverty line.Poverty guidelines and thresholds are used to evaluate the povertystatus of families or individuals in the United States. Debates onpoverty have influenced the existed of various paradigms. ClassicalMalthusian paradigm claims that poverty is based on productivestructures of humanity. Negative aspects of the society are commonlyassociated with the poor. Reductionist paradigms associate povertywith human behavior. The model argues that human conditions includingracial and geographical aspects are sources of poverty. SecularMalthusianism evaluates poverty based on the mechanisms of the marketsuch as demand and supply (Harvey &amp Reed, 1992). Besides, theSocial Darwinist argues that poverty is a self-inflicted situation.Humans are engaged in behavior or actions that contribute to thegrowth of poverty.

Genderand Poverty

Feminizationof poverty refers to the claim that women contribute much to the riseof poverty. In developing countries, women are affected by genderbiases and deprivation of opportunities. Low income is associatedwith women leading to a phenomenon known as the feminization ofpoverty. In various countries such as the United States, the majorityof the women live on one dollar a day. Most of the high-incomeearners in the world are men. Gender differences based on povertylevels are witnessed in various countries. However, in some countriessuch as Netherlands, and Poland, the gender difference is minimal,while in others such as Ireland, men are the poorest (Wiepking &ampMaas, 2005). Unequal distribution of resources prevents the growth ofwomen. For instance, men are allowed to inherit property, which theycan use to establish sources of income. The gender differences ratewill continue to increase unless opportunities are offered equally toall individuals.

TheBlue Sweater

Povertyhinders development in various global societies. Understanding andhandling poverty as a global issue would ensure that effectivestrategies are deployed to eliminate the problem. Services can bedeveloped and provided for access by the poor, free of charge or atminimized costs. The way tasks are accomplished in a societydetermines the status of poverty. Entrepreneurs who offer services athigh costs hinder the actions dedicated to eliminate poverty. Theefforts of every person in the various global societies are importantfor effective eradication of the problem (Glennerster, 2002).Developed countries need to provide economic support and otheropportunities to the developing countries to ensure that poverty isreduced.

Inconclusion, poverty hinders growth in various countries becauseresources are used to help the poor instead of implementingdevelopments. Policies and strategies need to be developed andimplemented across the world to end poverty. Women need to be exposedrelevant opportunities and resources to ensure that genderdifferences in connection to poverty are not witnessed.


Glennerster, H. (2002). United States poverty studies and povertymeasurement: The past twenty-five years. Social Service Review,76(1), 83-107.

Harvey, D. L., &amp Reed, M. (1992). Paradigms of poverty: Acritical assessment of contemporary perspectives. InternationalJournal of Politics, Culture, and Society, 6(2), 269-297.

Wiepking, P., &amp Maas, I. (2005). Gender differences in poverty: Across-national study. European Sociological Review, 21(3),187-200.