Public Administration

  • Uncategorized

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 4

PublicAdministration

PublicAdministration

Accordingto the survey and study done by Tanzania HIV/AIDS and malariaindicator survey (THMIS) 2012, HIV is still the most infectiousdiseases, which causes mortality and morbidity in Tanzania. Goodstrategic plan and the country`s efforts lead to decrease in theprevalence of the disease through education, care, treatment, andprevention. The decreases in the HIV prevalence is clear in the studywith a decline from 7% in 2003-2004 to 51% in 2011-2012, withHIV-infected persons in Tanzania being about 1.4million in 2015.People who died from AIDS released illness and complication wereabout 36, 000 in 2015 (Avert, 2017). The most important factor in thereduction and control HIV epidemic in last decade in Tanzania is theuse of antiretroviral treatment, which reduced the cases between 2010and 2015 by more than 20%.

Mostpeople living with HIV in Tanzania are women 780,000 women areinfected with the disease. The prevalence of the illness was 6.2%women compared to 3.8% for men the increased people use of drugs,according to the national AIDS control program (NACP), contributes toan increase in the prevalence of the illness. Based on research,about 30,000 people inject drugs this study still varies widelybecause of the cases are usually hidden by families of the personsdiagnosed with HIV. Victims should start receiving treatment toreduce the transmission of the infection. There are over 637, 875people on treatment. Pregnant women should take the drugs to decreasetransmission to their babies PEPFAR (CDC 2010).

From2010, the circumcision widely done to boys helped prevent HIVinfection (Avert, 2017). The CDC and ministry of health should worktogether to develop new strategies that offer treatment to all peopleliving with HIV. The agencies should also increase the service oftesting to prevent and control the spread of the disease. The factorsthat increase HIV transmission are determined through biomedicalcofactors. Evidence shows that the most ulcerative sexual transmitteddisease in Africa have a strong association with the transmission ofHIV from infected person (HIV-positive) to an uninfected person(HIV-negative people). Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is themost common infectious virus that affects the genitals and causesgenital ulcer disease (GUD), and increases the transmission of thedisease in Africa. Poverty has a strong relation to the diseaseprevalence. HIV infection can lead to poverty and loss of a job. Thedata from the United Republic of Tanzania showed that therelationship between the wealth and infection with HIV lead to theloss of money (Avert, 2017).

Thesecond most infectious disease in Tanzania is malaria, which iscaused by parasites that feed on blood and transmit the infectionfrom person to person through bits of the infected mosquito. Malariais one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity. In children,the symptom and signs of infection are high fever and anemia,especially in pregnant women.

Themosquito responsible for transmission of the parasite from person toperson is Anopheles Gambiae Complex (CDC 2016). The most commonparasite species responsible for the infection is Plasmodiumfalciparum, which is predominant. The most vulnerable to get theinfection include persons with low immunity, children with noimmunity to malaria and pregnant women whose immunity decrease duringpregnancy (CDC 2016). Malaria affects the economic state of anindividual and community because of the treatment and prevention costsuch as the use of insecticide, spraying and used bed nets to preventthe mosquito from biting a person.

References

Avert(2017). HIVand AIDs in Tanzania.Retrieved From:

https://www.avert.org/professionals/hiv-around-world/sub-saharan-africa/tanzania

Public Administration

  • Uncategorized

The foundations of in the United States: TheLegal, Managerial and Occupational Levels

Idea Model

The state beingenvisaged in this model will be based on the four pillars of publicadministration, that is, political, legal, managerial, andoccupational levels of administration. The political level will bebased on the functions of the state government with a concentrationof the public interest. The legal level will be based on theinstruments of law with the public administration acting inaccordance with the statutes, acts, ordinances, and regulations. Themanagerial level will define the executive nature of the peoplemandated with the function of public bureaucracy. The occupationallevel of the state will incorporate all the people running the publicoffices in all available occupational fields.

Pragmatic Model

In the pragmaticmodel, the envisaged state could be viewed as having a publicadministration that satisfies the public needs based on line andstaff functions. The dogmatic separation of the two functions is notpossible since the staff-function wing of the administration willneed to possess authority. In this model, the public administrationwill be required to apply the legal jurisdiction and their mandate inenhancing the socio-economic welfare of the people with aconcentration on helping the whole population to help itself. Theidea of public administration being part of offering service to thepublic has been confirmed by Waldo (1948). Waldo (1948) posits thatthe function of public administration is not merely implementingpolicies but rather they should ensure that the people can accessservices as a way of breaking from the tension that exists betweenbureaucracy and democracy. The basic tenet of this model is to applythe four levels of public administration in raising the socialwelfare of the indigent and the poor. Notwithstanding, the publicadministration being envisage should be able to uphold and respectthe constitutional systems of the US.

Place and Functions of

In the firstmodel, the public administration will be required to play thepolitical, legal, managerial, and occupational roles of the publicbureaucracy. The first model does not outlay the specific role beingplayed by the public administration but relies on the conventionalfunctions of the government. In the second theoretical model, thepublic administration will be required to enhance the social welfareof the people by leveraging on the functions bestowed upon it and thepower accorded to it by the constitutional systems. The modelindicates that it’s the jurisdiction of the public administrationto enhance the social welfare of the people.

References

Waldo, D. (1948).&nbspTheadministrative state: A study of the political theory of Americanpublic administration.New York: Ronald P.