Qualitative research approaches

  • Uncategorized

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH APPROACHES

CreswellJ. W. (2013) describes five approaches to research. The narrativeapproach uses written, spoken words or visual representations ofideas or experiences to facilitate an inquiry about a specific aspectof a given phenomenon. Phenomenology approach uses people’sexperience to know of their perceptions, perspectives, andunderstandings of a particular condition. Researchers who use thegrounded theory approach carry out investigations to come up with atheory, and primarily use interviews to collect data. Theethnographic approach is appropriate when investigators want to studya culture-sharing group. Case studies are effective for researching aphenomenon which has clear boundaries and enables researchers tofocus on several issues or a single issue. Creswell J. W. (2013) usedcase study approach to study campus violence in various universitiesin the USA. This paper uses five research articles to discuss andcompare the application and appropriateness of the five approaches.

Lejano&amp Leong (2012) use the narrative approach to evaluating publicdisputes in water reuse project constructed by Los Angeles Departmentof Water and Power (DWP). Table 1 illustrates how the investigatorscollected data. Interviews enabled the researchers to understand theexperiences of people involved in the dispute surrounding the waterreuse project. Documents such as newspaper and previous study reportsprovided additional information on the same project and otherprojects.

Table 1: Narrative approach

Source of information

Interviews

Observation

Documents

Audio-visual material

Newspaper articles

Yes

Water community

Yes

Staff

Yes

Yes

Administrators

Yes

Wilson &amp Hollensen (2013) employed the phenomenological approachto assessing the implications of aligning customer valueconsiderations with religious groups on performance. Table 2 showshow the researcher obtained data. Interviews offer an appropriateplatform for participants to provide their perspectives to improvethe outcomes of aligning customer value attachments to theirreligion. Secondary data enables the investigator to compare primarydata with the perspective that have been documented. It enhances theunderstanding of Wilson (2013) on the influence of religious groupson value.

Table 2: Phenomenological approach

Source of information

Interviews

Observation

Documents

Audio-visual material

Newspaper/papers/TV

Yes

Hindus

Yes

Yes

Muslims

Yes

Yes

Christians

Yes

Yes

Buddhists

Yes

Yes

Atheists

Yes

Gambetti, Graffigna &amp Biraghi (2012) realized the lack of anestablished and unitary theory to explain consumer-brand management.The investigators used an exploratory study to develop a preliminaryconceptual framework to investigate consumer-brand management usingthe grounded theory approach. Table 3 has details of the sources ofdata for their research. The data from interviews, observation, andsecondary data enable researchers to make generalizations and developrelationships between variables associated with consumer-bradmanagement. Analysis of relationships allows the conceptualization ofvarious phenomena.

Table 3: Grounded theory

Source of information

Interviews

Observation

Documents

Audio-visual material

Newspaper/papers/TV

Yes

Marketing managers

Yes

Yes

Communication professionals

Yes

Brand manager

Yes

Strategy director

Yes

CEO

Yes

Kriyantono R. (2012) used an ethnographic approach and the situationcrisis communication theory to explain how the public perceive anorganization’s actions when there is a crisis. The table belowindicates the details of the sources of date investigator used tofacilitate the study. Interviews are effective in studyingperceptions since they provide various options to victims to expressthemselves adequately. Secondary sources such as newspapers, TV, andresearch reports make it possible to collect data on the publicperception of individuals and entities that are difficult to meetphysically.

Table 4: Ethnographic approach

Source of information

Interviews

Observation

Documents

Audio-visual material

Newspaper/papers/TV

Yes

Victims of mudflow crisis

Yes

Press

Yes

Yes

Yes

Academics

Yes

Geologists

Yes

Non-government activists

Yes

Yes

Public relation practitioners

Yes

Mudflow sites

Yes

The objective of the study conducted by Walker H. &amp Jones N.(2012) was to explore sustainable chain management problems leadingcompanies in various sectors. They employed a case study approach.Interviews provide an avenue for the participants to explain theirexperiences with various issues associated with sustainable chainmanagement. Documents are effective in providing facts about theproblems that may not have been expressed by the interviewees.

Table 5: Case study

Source of information

Interviews

Observation

Documents

Audio-visual material

Newspaper/papers/TV

Yes

Senior company manager

Yes

Yes

Chartered Institute of Purchasing and Supply (CIPS)

Yes

Yes

Business in The Community (BiTC)

Yes

Yes

Supplier manager

Yes

Conclusion

Both primary and secondary sources of data were employed in allapproaches including the case study by Creswell (2013). Interviewswere the common source of information in all articles while the useof newspaper and reports was common the five methods of qualitativeresearch. The similarity between the approaches is that the use ofinterviews and secondary sources is central to data collection.Observational and interview protocols are similar. Case and narrativeapproaches differ from others because they employ multiple sources ofdata. Another difference is that grounded theory and phenomenologicalstudies depend primarily on interviews. Ethnographers attach muchimportance to participant observation and interviews. Researchers whouse narrative, phenomenology, or grounded theory study individuals.Case study researchers usually investigate a group of peopleassociated with an activity, event or organization. Ethnographersfocus of a whole cultural system or subcultures. Table 6 below is amaster table showing the summaries the sources of data for the fiveapproaches to qualitative research.

Table 6: Master table

Form of data/ frequencies

Interviews

Observation

Document

Audio-visual data

Number of articles in which used

5

2

5

1

Methodological approach in which used

All approaches

Ground theory and ethnographic

All approaches

Ethnographic approach.

References

Creswell, J. W. (2013).&nbspQualitative inquiry &amp researchdesign: Choosing among five approaches. Los Angeles: SAGEPublications.

Gambetti, R. C., Graffigna, G., &amp Biraghi, S. (2012). Thegrounded theory approach to consumer-brand engagement.&nbspInternationalJournal of Market Research,&nbsp54(5), 659-687.

Kriyantono, R. (2012). Measuring a company reputation in a crisissituation: An ethnography approach on the situational crisiscommunication theory.&nbspInternational Journal of Business andSocial Science,&nbsp3(9).

Lejano, R. P., &amp Leong, C. (2012). A hermeneutic approach toexplaining and understanding public controversies.&nbspJournal ofpublic administration research and theory,&nbsp22(4),793-814.

Walker, H., &amp Jones, N. (2012). Sustainable supply chainmanagement across the UK private sector.&nbspSupply ChainManagement: An International Journal,&nbsp17(1), 15-28.

Wilson, J. A., &amp Hollensen, S. (2013). Assessing the implicationson performance when aligning customer lifetime value calculationswith religious faith groups and after lifetime values–a Socraticelenchus approach.&nbspInternational Journal of BusinessPerformance Management,&nbsp14(1), 67-94.