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Roberts,Joanne, Julia Jergens, and Margaret Burchinal. &quotThe role of homeliteracy practices in preschool children`s language and emergentliteracy skills.&quot&nbspJournalof Speech, Language, and Hearing Research&nbsp48.2(2005): 345-359.

This article analyses the findings of a research that studied therelationships between the home environment and the language, as wellas the developing literacy skills of young children. This articlewas selected because of its credibility, and the fact that it touchesthe most critical elements of child development, which are thelanguage and the literacy skills. The statistics and the analysis ofthe research have been backed by several government agencies such asthe National Institutes of Health, Health Resource and ServiceAdministration, and Maternal and Child Health program.

This study surveyed how four specific literary practices and aninternational measurement of the value and sensitivity of the homeenvirons of young children predicted the emergent literacy skills andthe language of the children between the ages of four and five years.The measures examined included maternal sensitivity, maternal bookreading strategies, shared book reading frequency, as well asmaternal sensitivity. The research examined how such practicespredict the development of the language of children aged betweenthree to five years. Furthermore, the examiners looked at a standardmeasure of home environment. In this article, Robert et al. providesa comprehensive explanation of the research methods employed. Themothers and the children that took part in the study were AfricanAmerica and predominantly from low-income families.

The writers took a note that a big part of the research linked thehome environment of a child to their development. Nevertheless, dueto a lack of long-term and varied research, the connection betweenliteracy practices at home during the years before school and thechildren’s early literacy skills and language may not be whollyunderstood. Also in this study, the correlation between a child’sdevelopment and specific home literacy practices were not consistentenough to assert links. They also found that the universal measure ofthe home surroundings had consistency in predicting the children’sdeveloping literacy skills and language.

Whereas this study assists to back for further research on theeffects of specific home literacy practices, it also assists toemphasise the significance of overall home environment on thedevelopment of a child (Edwards 69). According to the research, theimmediate home environment, and the practices around it plays a majorrole in child development.

Marceau, K.,Narusyte, J., Lichtenstein, P., Ganiban, J. M., Spotts, E. L., Reiss,D., &amp Neiderhiser, J. M. &quotParental KnowledgeIs An Environmental Influence On Adolescent Externalizing&quot.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, vol 56, no. 2, 2014,pp. 130-137. Wiley-Blackwell.

This article is based on the findings of a research to examine theeffects of parental awareness as an environmental impact onexternalising or expressing out of their feelings by the youth. Ittalks about the relationship between parental monitoring as well asknowledge and adolescent’s externalisation. I choose this articlebecause of its important findings on the sensitive issue ofadolescent externalisation or expressing out.

Sufficient proof suggests that monitoring by the parents is anenvironmental impact helping to reduce the challenges of adolescentexternalising. Also, this suggestion may be motivated by thecharacteristics of the adolescent through environmental or geneticfactors, whereby those with lesser problems talk more to theirparents, hence are seen to be well monitored. With no evidence of howgenes, as well as environments, affect interrelated behaviours ofparents and children, it is difficult to explain the factors behindthese correlations.

The research in the article utilised the Extended Children of Twinsmodel. This enabled the researchers to differentiate between types ofdirect environmental effects and gene-environmental correlationbehind relations between parental awareness and externalisingbehaviour of adolescent between the ages of 12 to19. The study used asample population of nine hundred twin Swiss parents and theiradolescent children, and an American sample population of fourhundred adolescent twins and their parents.

Findings from the research submit that increased parental awarenessis related with reduced adolescent expressing through a directinfluence by the environment with the absence of any genetic impacts.The study found no suggestion of a child-driven justification of theassociation between adolescent externalising problems and parentalknowledge. Other studies suggest that the correlation of gene andenvironment is a significant factor that shapes parent-adolescentrelations. Nevertheless, facts on how the genes of parents and thoseof the children, as well as environments impact interrelatedbehaviours of the parents and the children is required todifferentiate types of gene-environment correlation (Marceau et al.125). The findings also explain the relation between parentalmonitoring and adolescent externalisation issues.

The study concluded that parental awareness applied an environmentalimpact on expressing by adolescent after excluding the effects ofgenes on parents and adolescent. Because the relations originate fromthe parents, management of externalisation need not only to includeparents but should also concentrate on changing their parentingstyles. Therefore, equipping the parents with properknowledge-related strategies will most likely help in reducingadolescent externalising problems.

&quotWe`re Still Family: WhatGrown Children Have To Say About Their Parents` Divorce. ConstanceAhrons.&quot.&nbspJournalOf Marriage And Family,vol 67, no. 3, 2005, pp. 784-786.&nbspWiley-Blackwell.

Ahrons uses her own unique research to substantiate that theoffspring of divorced parents are less likely to get themselves intotrouble. This article is very insightful and highlights variousissues normally asked by many about the effects of divorce onchildren. Divorce affects the children either positively ornegatively, depending on the circumstances. However, most of thetimes it impacts negatively on the overall wellbeing of the children.Sociologists have come up with several explanations tackling theissues of children and the divorce of their parents. They haveexamined different variables to pinpoint and obtain a betterunderstanding of the impacts of divorce on the welfare of thechildren. Some of the variables include academic performance,economic status, gender-role orientation, stress level, andsocialisation. Most children with divorced parents believe that ithas not affected or changed their lives in any way which mostlywrong. However, the findings of this research are slightly different.

In her research, Ahrons interviews 172 grown up children of divorcedparents. Twenty years back, before interviewing the children, she hadtalked with their parents. In the findings from her research, sheconcludes that children of divorced parents are less likely to getinto trouble and they grow up more knowledgeable because of thedivorce. On the norm, divorce is related to the welfare of childrenbeing lowered however not much from those in the non-divorced familysetting. Conventionally, it has been perceived that a family withboth parents living together provides a conducive environment for achild’s socialisation and gender development as compared to asingle-parent family (Gaunt &amp Ruth 645).

The findings from the research conclude that children who haveencountered divorce are less likely to indulge in troublesomelifestyle because they will always be more careful in life. Theexperience of divorce impact their social and gender development, andthis will always influence their decisions. Both parents areimportant resources for the development of children because each ofthem is a source of guidance, information, supervision, practicalassistance, and emotional support. Likewise, the presence of twoadults in the house allows parents to act as an example where theoffspring learn from them. In the US today, about thirty-five millionfamilies with children are headed by single parents, and overeighty-five percent are women.

Work Cited

Edwards, C. M. &quotMaternal Literacy Practices And Toddlers`Emergent Literacy Skills&quot. Journal Of Early ChildhoodLiteracy, vol 14, no. 1, 2012, pp. 53-79. SAGE Publications.

Gaunt, Ruth. &quotThe Role Of Value Priorities In Paternal AndMaternal Involvement In Child Care&quot. Journal Of Marriage AndFamily, vol 67, no. 3, 2005, pp. 643-655. Wiley-Blackwell.

Marceau, K., Narusyte, J.,Lichtenstein, P., Ganiban, J. M., Spotts, E. L., Reiss, D., &ampNeiderhiser, J. M. &quotGene-EnvironmentCorrelation Underlying The Association Between Parental NegativityAnd Adolescent Externalizing Problems&quot.&nbspChildDevelopment, vol 84, no. 6, 2013, pp. 2031-2046.&nbspWiley-Blackwell.

Marceau, K., Narusyte, J.,Lichtenstein, P., Ganiban, J. M., Spotts, E. L., Reiss, D., &ampNeiderhiser, J. M. &quotParental Knowledge Is AnEnvironmental Influence On Adolescent Externalizing&quot. Journalof Child Psychology and Psychiatry, vol 56, no. 2, 2014, pp.130-137. Wiley-Blackwell.

Roberts, Joanne et al. &quotTheRole Of Home Literacy Practices In Preschool Children`s Language AndEmergent Literacy Skills&quot.&nbspJournalOf Speech Language And Hearing Research, vol 48, no. 2, 2005, p.345.&nbspAmerican Speech Language Hearing Association.

&quotWe`re Still Family: WhatGrown Children Have To Say About Their Parents` Divorce. ConstanceAhrons.&quot.&nbspJournalOf Marriage And Family, vol 67, no. 3, 2005, pp.784-786.&nbspWiley-Blackwell.

Reflection Paper

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Thebook, “Agendas, Alternatives and Public Policies provides one withthe knowledge based on how to analyze the public policy makingprocess. There two factors that determine what has to be accounted inthe agenda or what is to be left out during the process of publicpolicy making (Kingdon, n.d.). The first is the people involved inthe process either those within or outside the government. The otheris that the process will entail the political, policy and problemstreams. I realized that the streams mentioned earlier have adifferent purpose. When the three streams are combined, one candetermine that a particular issue has a significance on the agenda.The proposed policies that have a relation to the problem will haveto be analyzed to the point whereby the changes in the policy areevident (Kingdon, n.d.). Additionally, there can be uncertainty whenthe problem stream, political stream and policy streams are merged.Therefore, I tend to argue that those policy entrepreneurs who feellike promoting any proposal have to be ready to take thatopportunity.

Thearticle focuses on controlled revolutions which are thoseinstitutions or decision situation. The organized anarchies arebranded based on three general features that are unclear technology,preference in problems and fluid participation. In reading thisarticle, one will understand that those institutions being regardedas organized anarchy have similar purposes which are perceived asgathering alternatives that look for issues and problems. Theorganized anarchies have aspects that seek decision situations whichcan be presented to the public. These organizations have remediesthat have to find the problems in order to provide the answer as wellas offer decision makers who are in need of a workstation. It isunderstood that all the ideas are translated to enhance a decisionprocess by using computer simulation model under a garbage can(Kingdon, n.d.). The effects of such a model are well understoodunder various measures of the process. This model can be beneficialwhen applied to narrow predictions due to its effects on thediversity of a decision-making process of an institution.


Kingdon,J. Agenda, Alternatives and public policies (Longman classics inpolitical science) (2nd ed.). James A. Thurber.