Reflection Week Five – Creswell Chapters 9-11

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ReflectionWeek Five – Creswell Chapters 9-11



Researchstudies are sensitive matters in any given society and governments.The three chapters from 9-11 have confirmed this phenomenon as it hasproved most are conducted to verify a given situation that is inexistence in any given community and at times at add to the alreadyexisting information. To improve data quality, researchers mustdedicate a considerable amount of their time to go out to the fieldwith an open mind so as to get the genuine opinion from therespondent from whom they are seeking certain answers to. Accordingto Creswell (2012), qualitative research mostly involves directparticipation from respondents giving the freedom at free will togive answers and opinions that are genuine and not biased. For thereto be fair results, the researcher is first expected to have firstopenly stated his opinion and mind regarding the particular issue ona discussion in a final report so as to ensure that he does notdirect his research in a direction that will favor his point of view.The content of a good research is that it should comprise of somevital components that will make it complete and easily analyzable.The factors to consider are for example the broad writing strategiesthat have been used in crafting the qualitative study, the writingstructures used within each of the five approaches and the themesembedded within the structures. The paper suggests that people aremost likely to write reports based on their on assumptions andconclusions. It is therefore very important for all researchers fullyembrace the concept of reflexivity as a way of ensuring that they areconscious of the experiences, values, and biases that she brings inthe study. This has been well put forward as researchers are nowexpected to first talk about their experiences in regards to theissue at hand and to as well discuss how their experiences shapetheir interpretation about the issue at hand.

Thewriting is then suggested to be encoded as a way of revealing thewriter`s perceptions on the needs of the audience (Lincoln et al pg120). That is meant to say that different encodings should be used tofit different target audiences in relations to the environment andphenomenal. Academic writing is the most preferred and recommendedmode for writing a qualitative study with the differences onlyarising in the use of terminologies. A good qualitative study shouldfollow specific guidelines in writing that should include anintroduction, statement of the problem, and an outline representationof the order of information within the research document. When itcomes to the standards of validation and evaluation, the researcheris expected to use distinctive terms that will bring out a cleardistinction about the different perspectives at hand. During theprocess of analyzing the data, the reliability of the data collectedis confirmed through the use of interceding agreements forcomparisons. Creswell (2012, pg) also suggests that the researchershould be alert at all time to know at what point and how to turn upa story favorable conclusion. Depending on how the writer frames it,the researcher has the capability of changing the line of discussionand result to one that will be favorable to the specific type of datathat they want to collect and analyze. Lynhamand his group of scholars were also of the opinion that theconclusion should be based on the approach used in the inquiry thatis either in the narrative study, phenomenology, or ethnography(2011, pg 123). The qualitative research study is also influenced ina big way by the researchers’ interpretations of events andcircumstances the only difference being that their interpretationelement is one that flows throughout the research process. Theresearch approaches should, however, be sort out first before anyanalysis procedure is carried out to maintain the flow. Thetraditional criteria for assessing the worth of a study should beused in validation to avoid overlaps and ensure accuracy. In overalla qualitative research study should reflect the real opinion of thestudy rather than that of the writer. Specific procedures forapproval and methods of carrying out the research should strictly befollowed to ensure a transparent and a more credible researchoutcome.


Ibelieve that most of what has been stipulated by John W. Creswell isundoutedly crucial especially when dealing with highly delicateinformation. Qualitative research should only be done on targetindividuals who are facing the situation that seeking to be addressedby the study. It is crucial for the researcher to first give awritten report about his opinions and suggestions regarding thesituation at hand as a sure way of avoiding misdirection of the wholeresearch findings to fit their specifications (Armstronget al., 2011).The only controversial part arising is the situation where someresearchers would want to turn the public opinion to suit theirpersonal opinions and experiences regarding the matter which is notalways the case. Rather than just concentrating on the affected, thestudy should also aim to find out the opinions of those not affectedby the phenomena and try and understand their point of view and whatthey perceive as the best way forward to address the issue as well.Other than that I find it fascinating by the fact that differentencoding systems have eased and brought about a lot of difference inhow researchers present their work in this current world. Combiningthe collected data within an analysis tool is a sure way of findingout the exact scope of the impending issue (Friese,2010).Analytical data presents data in such a way that will appeal toreaders and institutions within which the research was beingconducted for.


Whileconducting the personal interviews and focused group discussion, itis essential to ensure the respondents are given full control of thediscussions so that they can give out genuine information withoutnecessarily feeling pressured. The person conducting the researchshould also not provide leading questions and suggestion to them asthis will only incline them to give biased answers based on the ideaspresented to them. This information is especially vital to thenon-governmental institutions seeking to carry out studies in areaswhere they deem best for initiating their projects. Learninginstitutions, as stipulated by Friese(2010) should be encouraged to start offering SPSS statistics tostudents willing to learn in analytical data as one way of fosteringa generation that is more informed with data analysis and encodewriting for fair and unbiased qualitative inquiry and researchdesign.


Armstrong,D., Gosling, A., Weinman, J., &amp Marteau, T. (2011). The place ofinter-rater reliability in qualitative research: An empirical study.Sociology,31, 597–606.

Creswell,J. W. (2012). Educationalresearch: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative andqualitative research (4th ed.).Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Friese,S. (2012). Qualitative data analysis with ATLAS.ti. Thousand Oaks,CA: Sage

Lincoln,Y. S., Lynham, S. A., &amp Guba, E. G. (2011). Paradigmaticcontroversies, contradictions, and emerging confluences. In N. K.Denzin &amp Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), SAGE handbook of qualitativeresearch (4th ed., pp. 97–128). ThousandOaks, CA: Sage.

Riessman,C. K. (2008). Narrativemethods for the human sciences.Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

Yin,R. K. (2009). Casestudy research: Design and method (4th ed.).Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.