## Science Lab in the Classroom

• Uncategorized

SCIENCE LAB IN THE CLASSROOM 5

ScienceLab in the Classroom

InstitutionAffiliation:

ScienceLab in the Classroom

Scientificpractice refers to the classroom activities that are used to describeknowledge, skills, and demonstrate how to complete learningactivities. They help the learners to formulate questions, defineproblems, and to construct models that represent developed ideas(Metz, 2016). This paper reflected.Someof the important scientific practices such as creating explanations,mathematics and computational thinking.

Definitionof the Scientific Practices

Constructionof explanations refers to the process of linking observations andtheories. Science attempts to explain the causes of various phenomenathrough the construction of explanations on varied scientificconcepts and theories (Metz, 2016). On the other hand, mathematicsand computational thinking refers to the process of constructingsimulations, analyzing statistical data, and predicting the behaviorof variables (Metz, 2016).

ClassroomActivities on the Application of the Science Practices

Thegiven scientific practices were applied during learning in a varietyof ways. Firstly, the construction of explanations was used to teachstudents on lifestyle diseases such as diabetics. The teacher askedthe students a question on lifestyle diseases. Among the questionsthat the teacher asked was: are there other risk factors leading tothe development of type II diabetes? The students completed theassignment by constructing explanations and by first developingevidence and support to the scientific claims (Gilbert et al 2016).This activity showed that the construction of explanations was animportant scientific practice in the learning process. Through thequestions, the students learnt how to find evidence, support claims,and give reasons through the constructed explanations.

Secondly,the teacher gave students assignments which required them to applymathematical concepts by creating relationships among differentvariables using scientific theories. For example, in Hooke’s lawthe mathematical expression F = ke was used to create a connectionbetween the applied force and spring extension. The students applieddifferent mathematical concepts to summarize such scientifictheories. The students also used computational thinking to illustratehow Hooke`s law could be applied in real life situations. This wasdone by using the mathematical representation of Hooke`s law, F = kewhere F stands for the amount of force acting on the spring innewton’s, K is the spring constant, and e is the extension on thespring in centimeters to calculate the missing variable.

Thestudents also applied computer programs such as excel to performmathematical computations. The teacher introduced physics conceptsusing experiments in the laboratory by tasking the students with theexamination of the properties of a pendulum. The students wereassisted by the teacher in taking data such as the length andfrequency of the pendulum. The teacher then discussed with them someof the mathematical and computational methods.

Examplesof How the Scientific Practices Were Applied in the Laboratory

Inpractical lessons where students were experimenting on thedevelopment of a better airbag, mathematical concepts wereimplemented through calculating the moles present in the carbon gaswhich was used to fill the airbag explanations were also given onhow the airbags was activated in the automobiles. In an experiment toobtain the polarity of a solvent by using its freezing point, themathematical concepts were applied in calculating the molality of thesolute. The students explained how the ions present in the solutionwere dissociated. Buffered solutions are those that do not allowchanges in their pH, during the experiment, the researchers gave outexplanations on how buffered solution were prepared. TheHenderson-Hasselbalch equation was then used to calculate the pH ofthe buffered solution. In the experiment to determine the mostreactive metals, the students were able explained why some metals aremore reactive than others. The mass of the metals displaced duringthe displacement reaction were then calculated. The change ofequilibrium position in a chemical solution was explained using Lechatalliers principle, the amount of heat that was absorbed orreleased during the process was then calculated. In the quantitativesynthesis of aspirin, an explanation was given on how to extractsalicylic acid from willow bark, the molarity of the acetic acid tobe used was then calculated before being measured.

Conclusion

Basingon what has been discussed in this paper, the two scientificpractices are imperative in learning. This is because they facilitatethe students` ability to construct systematic explanations usingevidence, models, and knowledge of many scientific concepts. Creatingillustrations, using mathematical models, and computational thinkingalso enables the students to build on their experiences and tounderstand various concepts in science subjects.

References

Gilbert,A., Bloomquist, D., &amp Czerniak, C. M. (2016). UsingMathematical and Computational Thinking in Early Grades ScienceClassrooms:The Need for High‐QualityProfessional Development. School Science and Mathematics, 116(4),175-176.

Metz,S. (2016). Constructingexplanations and designing solutions.The Science Teacher, 83(1), 6.

## Science Lab in the Classroom

• Uncategorized

SCIENCE LAB IN THE CLASSROOM 5

ScienceLab in the Classroom

ScienceLab in the Classroom

Scientificpractices describe the knowledge and skills that students shouldmaster and demonstrate to complete a learning activity. The methodsdescribe the phenomena that scientist encounter as they constructmodels and theories that explain the natural world. The purpose ofscientific practice in learning is to develop questions, defineproblems, and to construct models that represent the developed ideas.Scientists also carry out investigations in the laboratory and designsolutions for the problems affecting people. Accordingly, the essaywill reflect on important scientific practices namely: constructingexplanations, using mathematics and computational thinking.

Constructionof explanations is the process whereby observations and theoriesabout the various parameters are linked with the already knownrelationships between variables. The sole purpose of science is toexplain the causes of phenomena this goal is realized through theconstruction of explanations about the origin and forces behind aparticular occurrence innature(Metz, 2016).Mathematics and Computational thinking refer to the process ofconstructing simulations, analysis of data using statistics, andpredicting the behavior of variables(Metz, 2016).A teacher canemploythe scientific practices discussed above in the following classroombased activities. First, construction of explanations is used whenteaching concepts about lifestyles diseases such as diabetes. Tutorsuse this idea in the classroom to illustrate the causes of diabetes,the reasonfor its prevalence in America and the etiology of the disease to helpthe students to gain knowledge on lifestyle conditions.

The teacher can give the students a question of lifestyle diseasesfor example, are there other risk factors for developing type twodiabetes? The students will complete the assignment through theapplication of construction of explanations where, the learner willcome up with a claim, support with evidence, and justify his findingusing reasonable illustrations(Gilbert, Bloomquist, &amp Czerniak, 2016). Thescenario described above illustrates that construction ofexplanations is fundamental in the learning process because itassiststeachers to impart knowledge to learners, and students to completetheir assignments and make presentations in class. Second, a teachercan use mathematical concepts to construct models in economics thatexplain the relationship between variables such as gross domesticproduct, tax revenue and their impact on economic development(Gilbert,Bloomquist, &amp Czerniak, 2016).Teaching in class is made simpler by the application of mathematicalconcepts to demystify the vast theories featured in economics. Theteacher will apply computational thinking to illustrate macroeconomicconcepts,for example, grossdomestic product which is determined by consumption (C), investments(I), government expenditure (G) and net exports(X). The tutor willsummarize the macroeconomics theories about the GDP using thefollowing mathematical model, Y=C+1+G+X.

Theteacher can issue the following assignment to the students: whatpercentage of the America’s GDP is accounted for by consumerspending? To answer this question, I will use computers in the schoollaboratory to access the Bureau of Economic Analysis in order toretrieve data on the GDP in America. Mathematics and computationconcepts will be used by the students in the computer laboratory tocalculate the percentage of GDP using computer packages such as excelwhere the student will input the formula, and data derived from theBureau of Economic Analysis. Scientific practices are fundamentalwhen teaching students about any processes of interest(Gilbert, Bloomquist, &amp Czerniak, 2016).A teacher can introduce the concepts in physics using experiments inthe laboratory where students are tasked to examine the properties ofa pendulum. The tutor will assist students to take data such as thelength and frequency of the pendulum, then the teacher will discussthe students the mathematical and computational methods that can beused with the numbers, concepts such as squaring numbers will beperceived with ease.

Inconclusion, scientific processes such as the constructionof explanations, mathematics,and computations have made teaching science more enjoyable since theyassist the students indemystifying various concepts that explain the phenomenon in thenatural world as illustrated in this essay.Both the students and the instructors have various roles in fosteringeffective learning.

References

Gilbert,A., Bloomquist, D., &amp Czerniak, C. M. (2016). Using Mathematicaland Computational Thinking in Early Grades Science Classrooms: TheNeed for High‐QualityProfessional Development.&nbspSchoolScience and Mathematics,&nbsp116(4),175-176.

Metz,S. (2016). Constructing explanations and designing solutions.&nbspTheScience Teacher,&nbsp83(1),6.

## Science Lab in the Classroom

• Uncategorized

ScienceLab in the Classroom

InstitutionAffiliation:

ScienceLab in the Classroom

Scientificpractices refer to classroom activities that are used to describeknowledge, skills, and demonstrate how to complete learningactivities. They help learners formulate questions, define problems,and construct models that represent developed ideas (Metz, 2016).This paper reflects on the importance of scientific practices.

Definitionof the Scientific Practices

Constructionof explanations refers to the process of linking observations andtheories. Science attempts to explain the causes of various phenomenathrough the construction of explanations on varied scientificconcepts and theories (Metz, 2016). On the other hand, mathematicsand computational thinking refers to the process of constructingsimulations, analyzing statistical data, and predicting the behaviorof variables (Metz, 2016).

ClassroomActivities on the Application of the Science Practices

Constructionof explanations was used by students in responding to questions onlifestyle diseases. The teacher asked the students the following: arethere other risk factors leading to the development of type IIdiabetes? The students completed the assignment by developingstatements to clarify, explain, and support the scientific claims(Gilbert et al 2016). This activity showed that the construction ofexplanations was an important scientific practice in the learningprocess. Students used facts to explain what leads to diseasedevelopment.

Useof mathematical concept was applied by creating relationships amongdifferent variables using scientific theories. For example, inHooke’s Law the mathematical expression F = ke was used to create aconnection between the applied force and spring extension. Thestudents applied different mathematical concepts to summarize suchscientific theories. The students also used computational thinking toillustrate how Hooke`s law could be applied in real life situations.This was done by using the mathematical representation of Hooke`slaw, F = ke where F stands for the amount of force acting on thespring in newton’s, K is the spring constant, and e is theextension on the spring in centimeters to calculate the missingvariable.

Thestudents also applied computer programs such as excel to performmathematical computations. The teacher introduced physics conceptsusing experiments in the laboratory by tasking the students throughobservation of the properties of a pendulum. They recorded data oflength and frequency of the pendulum, after which they appliedmathematical and computational methods to establish the relationshipof the variables.

Examplesof How the Scientific Practices Were Applied in the Laboratory

Inpractical lessons where students did an experiment on the developmentof a better airbag, mathematical concepts were applied in calculatingthe moles present in the carbon gas which was used to fill theairbag explanations were also given on how the airbags wereactivated in the automobiles. In an experiment to obtain the polarityof a solvent by using its freezing point, the mathematical conceptswere applied in calculating the molarity of the solute. The studentsexplained how the ions present in the solution dissociated. Bufferedsolutions are those that do not allow changes in their pH, during theexperiment, the researchers explained how buffered solutions wereprepared. The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation was then used tocalculate the pH of the buffered solution. In the experiment todetermine the most reactive metals, the students got an explanationon why some metals are more reactive than others. The mass of themetal displaced during the displacement reaction was then calculated.The change of equilibrium position in a chemical solution wasexplained using Le Chatelier’s principle, the amount of heat thatwas absorbed or released during the process was then calculated. Inthe quantitative synthesis of aspirin, an explanation was given onhow to extract salicylic acid from willow bark the molarity of theacetic acid used was then calculated before it was measured.

Conclusion

Basedon what has been discussed in this paper, the two scientificpractices are imperative in learning. This is because they facilitatethe students` ability to construct systematic explanations usingevidence, models, and knowledge of many scientific concepts. Creatingillustrations, using mathematical models, and computational thinkingalso enables the students to build on their experience and tounderstand various concepts in science subjects.

References

Gilbert,A., Bloomquist, D., &amp Czerniak, C. M. (2016). UsingMathematical and Computational Thinking in Early Grades ScienceClassrooms:The Need for High‐QualityProfessional Development. School Science and Mathematics, 116(4),175-176.

Metz,S. (2016). Constructingexplanations and designing solutions.The Science Teacher, 83(1), 6.