Sleep-Wake Disorders Insomnia

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Sleep-WakeDisorders: Insomnia

Sleep-WakeDisorders: Insomnia

Question1: Insomnia Disorder

Insomniainvolves a condition where one is a predominant victim of inadequatesleep time and quality. In this case, one shows the signs ofchallenges in starting sleep, especially in adolescents and adults.Most importantly, children may show difficulty in beginning sleepwithout the intervention of their parents or caregivers (AmericanPsychiatrist Association, 2014).Moreover, individuals suffering from insomnia may face challenges inmaintaining sleep, which, in most cases, is followed by constantawakenings or struggles when going back to relaxation mood withouthelp.

Thediagnosis to this disorder is granted in case it manifests as anindependent or comorbid condition that comes along other disorders,such as depression or pain. In other words, insomnia can come as asingle illness with certain levels of anxiety and stressfulcharacteristics. On the other hand, it can manifest in an individualas a clinical condition in a more prime mental sickness (AmericanPsychiatrist Association, 2014).In fact, persistent disorder of this time is a renowned cause ofdepression, which is also a common residual sign that is noted aftercare is given to patients suffering from insomnia.

Furthermore,the prevalence of insomnia is an indication that a large part of thepopulation suffers from the disorder. The estimates based on surveysreveal that a third of adults undergo this illness. In this case, 10to 15% report related daytime difficulties with their sleep and 6 to10% indicate signs that meet the criteria for this condition(AmericanPsychiatrist Association, 2014).That being said, it has become clear that insomnia is more manifestedin females than in males.

Question2: Current Practice-Based Intervention

Thecurrent intervention for insomnia disorder is the behavioralapproach, which entails relaxation training, sleep regulation,restrictive remedy, stimulus coordination, and cognitive reformationamong others (Sharma&amp Andrade, 2012).The methods have been proven to be efficient and cost-effective forthe illness, especially for those seeking long-term care. On top ofthe behavioral approaches used to assist those suffering from theillness, it ought to be noted that effective treatment of thisdisorder should resolve cognitive mechanisms that sustain insomnia(Sharma&amp Andrade, 2012).In this case, the best approaches to handle this illness ought tofocus on dysfunctional moods and beliefs concerning sleep andirregular times in bed, which seem to manifest as abnormal sequencesin an individual.

Firstof all, behavioral method involves relaxation therapy whereobservations are perceived as the main ways of handling thisdisorder. In that case, patients of insomnia reveal high degrees ofphysiologic and mental arousals at any time of day. It has becomeevident that formal relaxation interventions on such individualslower the sleep-associated anxieties (Sharma&amp Andrade, 2012).In fact, this approach is more suitable for those who show featuresof inability to relax and those revealing multiple somaticconditions.

Ontop of that, stimulus control intervention plays a role in behavioralapproach. It involves assisting a patient suffering from insomnia toformulate a constant rhythm of sleep. In fact, one is advised on whento go to bed, the activities to engage in, and daytime napping amongothers (Sharma&amp Andrade, 2012).Moreover, clock-watching is highly restricted during this therapybecause it has been cited as a major contributor of insomnia amongmany individuals.

Mostimportantly, sleep restriction intervention is part of behavioralapproach which involves systematic and controlled sleep deprivationthat is developed to consolidate the same and eventually increase thetime allocated for relaxation in bed. In other words, it is aimed atregulating the sleep-wake pattern (Sharma&amp Andrade, 2012).Therefore, the constant bedtime and wake period that is needed forthis approach assists in re-entraining and rejuvenating circadiansequences among people suffering from insomnia.

Question3: Comprehensive Initial Treatment Plan


Theprimary help for those with insomnia would involve avoidance ofstimulants, such as nicotine some hours before one goes to bed.Others would include formulating reliable and consistent bedtime andwake time (Stahl,2013).In other words, primary intervention entails avoiding on beinginvolved in preventive measures that can provoke more symptoms ofinsomnia at the early stages.


Thesecondary approach involves the methods that can help reduce theimpact of insomnia that has already been manifested in an individual.It would involve regular visits to a care provider for observationand detection of any recurrent signs of the disorder (Sadock&amp Sadock, 2011).Apart from primary models that are known to work effectively,secondary intervention can entail low doses of medications, whichshould be regulated before any pharmacological care is given to apatient. Psychological intercession may include relaxation, sleeprestriction, and stimulus regulation.


Theintervention method involves softening of any effects that ongoinginsomnia may have on a patient. In this case, it can be done byassisting individuals manage the long-lasting effects in an attemptto improve their welfare as much as it is needed for them to functionand increase their life expectancy (Sadock&amp Sadock, 2011).Although insomnia is well-treated using primary and secondarysettings, tertiary intervention can include regular checks to ensurethat a patient is improving, vocational therapies, stimulusregulation, and consistent relaxation moments among others.

Safetyand Legal Concerns

Someof the safety and legal considerations included in treatment ofinsomnia is that the drugs prescribed should be after deep tests andobservations of a patient. It should also be clear that an individualis indeed suffering from the disorder to avoid giving the wronginterventions of treatment. Moreover, all the checks and assistanceshould be aimed at establishing the best welfare for an individual.It is a legal requirement that the treatment should be aimed atimproving the quality of life of a patient.


Insomniahas been associated with genetic formation of an individual. It canbe indicated that the disorder can be hereditary in nature. In fact,scientists have mentioned that some individuals’ genes tend toheighten their stress reaction capacity. Therefore, the provokedresponse can augment the possibility of insomnia.


Thereis a need for family and friends to be involved in the ongoinghealing process of an individual suffering from insomnia. In fact,they should be involved in ensuring that such patients haveconsistent sleep times as directed by care providers. They can alsobe advised on what to do when their members show signs of insomnia.


Pharmacotherapyinvolves the treatment using drugs and, in this case, those sufferingfrom insomnia can take hypnotics at regulated amounts by a physician.However, these drugs should only be administered after the disorderhas been declared as one that requires clinical medications (Stahl,2013).The drugs should be regulated as much as possible to avoid sideeffects.

Complementaryand Alternative Treatments/ Community Intervention

Communitiescan play a role in preventing insomnia among their populations. Inthis case, awareness should be done regularly to educate individualson how to prevent such disorders. Moreover, people should beencouraged to seek help if they find out that they have signs of theillness.

HealthPromotion and Disease Prevention

Thereis a need for health promotion among vulnerable populations. Theawareness should begin from homes, workplaces, and public centerswhere people are educated on insomnia and how to prevent it fromoccurring in their lives. The government in collaboration with theministries should place awareness programs and platforms to ensurethat people are covered for therapy sessions and intervention.

PatientResponse and Modification of Treatment Plan

Duringtreatment, regular check-ups should be done to ensure that thepatient responds effectively to interventions. The reduction ofsymptoms of insomnia should be the core feature of the healingprocess. The patient should also be comfortable when undergoingtreatment to ensure that they respond efficiently to the illness.Furthermore, there is a need to modify the plan in case a patientshows little or no signs of improvement (Sadock&amp Sadock, 2011).It should be done by laying down all the factors affecting thetreatment process and what can be done to improve the same.


AmericanPsychiatrist Association (2014). Diagnostic and statistical manual ofmental disorders (DSM-5), 5thEd. Retrieved from

Sadock,B. J., &amp Sadock, V. A. (2011).&nbspKaplanand Sadock`s synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/clinicalpsychiatry.New York, NY: Lippincott Williams &amp Wilkins. Retrieved from

Sharma,M. P., &amp Andrade, C. (2012). Behavioral interventions forinsomnia: Theory and practice.&nbspIndianJournal of Psychiatry,&nbsp54(4),359. Retrieved from

Stahl,S. M. (2013).&nbspStahl`sessential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practicalapplications.Ithaca, NY: Cambridge university press. Retrieved from`s%20Essential%20Psychopharmacology&ampf=false