Theproduction through a complex set of photochemical substancesinvolving explosive organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxide inthe existence of sunlight that result in the expulsion of ozone,leads to the development of smog. Smog-forming pollutants come fromsources such as power plants, automobile exhausts, factories,consumer products such as paints, charcoal starter fluid, plasticpopcorn packaging, and solvents. Major smog occurrences are linked tocalm winds, sunshine, heavy motor vehicle traffic and hightemperatures. Weather and geography affect the location and severityof the pollutant. This paper will, therefore, focus on smog in China,its health effects and the mitigation process developed by thegovernment of China to curb this issue. As China continues tochampion industrialization, the repercussions have been severe on theenvironment. It is one of the most polluted countries across theglobe.
Temperatureregulates the length of time it takes for smog to form. Smog can befaster and be more intense in a hot and sunny day while it may staytrapped over the city when inversion occurs, and winds are calm. Fogis more severe from the pollution sources since the chemical reactioncausing it comes in the atmosphere while the wind causes the reactingchemicals. Extreme air pollutant and ground-level ozone problemsoccur in many areas China being one of them.
Smogrefers to a combination of fog and smoke. It is a mixture ofpollutants comprising ground level ozone. This number one airpollutant affecting China came about because of various reasons, andone of them is the production of coal. The world recognizes China ashighest emitter of greenhouse fumes from coal, which is anon-renewable vestige fuel made in our sphere’s swamplands overmillions of years ago. The sweltering coal factories depend on fossiland ineffective technologies. Deposits of organic plant material arebroken together under an extreme pressure of high temperature, and itdocks energy that plants enthralled from the sun many years back.This power is taken out by burning it. The use of coal in China hasbeen reducing from the early years of 2000 due to the slow economicdevelopment and new environmental laws. However, it still must burnmassive amounts to meet the heavy demands. It is due to the emissionof carbon dioxide that forms smog. Another cause is an outburst inthe number of motor-powered automobiles [CITATION Ame89 l 1033 ].
Dueto increased wealth, many citizens can afford vehicles and emissionsfrom these vehicles, which include carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide,nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide causes air pollution. Newlypresented automobile haslowemission standards, hence,releasemore of these contaminants into the atmosphere than the older ones.Topographical location of China also makes it vulnerable to the boutof smog since it is surrounded by mountains, guaranteeing thatpollution ensnared is pollution within the city bounds. Air qualitydeteriorates in spring and summer when hotness and moisture levelrises, thus airstreams cause the smog by transport pollutants fromtechnologically advanced southern areas [CITATION Ame89 l 1033 ].
Thereare health effects from this air pollution in China. Long-termproblems include cardiovascular diseases and lung diseases,whichhave resulted in lesser birth rates and high adult deaths cancer andbirth issues. The normal life span of the citizens is five to sixyears shorter. It also leads to dry hacking complemented by itchythroat due to a brown fog that trundles into the Chinese capital.There are also short-term effects such as asthma, heart attacks, andbronchitis (Haynie, 2017). The Olympics played a crucial role inmitigating the occurrence of smog by raising consciousness about themodification of environmental principles. City administrators alsotransformed coal furnaces in many homes to natural gas and movedfactories to outlying areas in China. The government has put upemergency measures, which include the closure of facilities and banson motor vehicles getting into the city during days of heavy airpollution. The Air Pollution Contingency Plan passed this in 2013.This plan consisted of four warning stages based on air contaminationphases and depending on the alert level different execution ofactions which include: closure of schools, removal of a certainpercentage of vehicles from the roads, forbidding of barbecues andfireworks, utilization of water and sprinkler trucks and stoppingconstruction sites.
Inconclusion, ventilation corridors are also constructed to reduce thecity’s barrier to wind, help with the blowout of pollutants andincrease the airflow between interior and exterior parts of the city.Massive passageways, each gaging 1,640 feet would be createdtransversely in the city using parks, highways, rivers, lakes andless building blocks, as recorded by the People’s Daily Online. In2015, the Chinese government replaced coal power plants with cleanerenergy and mitigated the production of more than 2000 pollutingfactories. The environmental protection bureau also stated that itwould increase high air pollution cautions. The largest issuing ofalert when the daily average air quality index (AQI) is forecasted toexceed 500 for a day, 300 or two days consecutively or 200 withinfour days (Lyme, 2016).
American Lung Association. (2012, March). Retrieved from Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution: http://www.deq.louisiana.gov/portal/PROGRAMS/OzoneActionProgram/OzoneFactsandExperiments/WhatisSmog.aspx
Haynie, D. (2017, January 13). Retrieved from The Clear Thing about China`s Smog: https://www.usnews.com/news/best-countries/articles/2017-01-13/the-health-effects-of-beijings-smog
Lyme, C. (2016, February 22). Retrieved from Mail Online: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/peoplesdaily/article-3458370/Has-Beijing-finally-solution-smog-Chinese-capital-plans-ventilation-corridors-curb-notorious-air-pollution.html