SOCIAL CHANGE BLOG 8
Theaspect of social change refers to the notion of evolution or progressin the social context of the society. As such, it is the alterationof a community`s social order (Schober, 2013). Ideally, among thefactors that may enhance a significant change in the social norms ofa particular society are the environment, technology as well as theeconomic factors (Bandiera & Natraj, 2013). Mostimportantly psychological factors play a crucial role insupplementing a particular social change (Cuberes & Teigneir,2014).Therefore,the feminist movement is one of the most significant social changesin the current society.In this case, the women`s movement is primarily based on the advocacythat entails an active political campaign against domestic violence,sexual harassment, women suffrage as well as equal pay for females asit is for men (Bandiera & Natraj, 2013). The self-recognitionmeasures for women that facilitate the feminist movement occur basedon inequality, the oppression feelings, and the sense of unworthinessamong others (Schober, 2013).Relatively,this constitutes to the psychological aspects of a considerablesocial change such as the feminist movement.
Roleof Psychology in the Feminist Movement
Infeminism, psychology plays a significant role in enhancing theself-recognition measures (Baeneria, Berik & Floro, 2015). On topof self-awareness, it is through the psychological aspects that womenare in a position to effectively advocate for their rights and valuein the society (Baeneria, Berik & Floro, 2015). Relatively, therole of psychology in the feminist movement is referred to as thefeminist psychology (Bandiera & Natraj, 2013).Thefeminist psychology is based on the social structures and gender as awhole (Bandiera & Natraj, 2013). As such, it is oriented on theprinciples and values of feminism thus incorporating the aspect ofsex and the ways in which women are affected from the domination ofgender (Schober, 2013). In additionally, some of the ways in whichwomen are affected includes stereotypical gender roles, genderhierarchy, and gender identity, among other gender issues such asgender preference.
Emotionplays a critical role in enhancing feminist psychology (Deere,Alvarado & Twyman, 2012). According to psychologists, emotionsare controlled by culture while the differences occur in theparticular expression of the emotions instead of the emotionsthemselves (Cuberes & Teigneir, 2014).The stereotypes of emotions perceive women as a more emotional genderin the sense that women are more sensitive to feelings (Deere,Alvarado & Twyman, 2012). On the contrary, psychologists haveargued that women merely experience passive emotions in a strongerway. In addition to the feminist psychologists` research, is based ona social context that makes them view and expresses their feelings ina more different way (Schober, 2013). On this note, at a young age,peers influence the socialism aspect of both boys and girls. On thisnote, kids are rewarded for dominance and lack a high emotionalexpression while girls are paid for being both emotional andsensitive (Schober, 2013). Besides, it has also been revealed thatwomen have a significant skill in the decoding of non-verbal cuesbased on emotions (Cuberes & Teigneir, 2014).Relatively,such signals of the non-verbal cues include the posture, intonation,and facial expression (Schober, 2013).Evidently,there is a significant gender difference in the decoding ability forboth men and women which begin at an early stage.
Violencealso contributes to the feminist psychology. In this case, researchshows that feminists have relatively relied on the notion of traumato enhance feminism (Bandiera & Natraj, 2013). Theenhancement of feminism is based on criticizing the familyinstitution, arguing for reverse policies, protecting children aswell as fighting against male domination and violence (Deere,Alvarado & Twyman, 2012). Violence towards women is not limitedto either race, location, ethnicity or age and it occurs in bothpsychological and physical means (Deere, Alvarado & Twyman,2012). As such, with the women reacting to such measures of violencein different ways, violence can bear adverse effects on them undereither short-term or long-term effects (Deere, Alvarado & Twyman,2012). Some of the violated women express their emotions throughanxiety, fear, and anger while others choose not to accept theoccurrence and thus conceal their feelings (Bandiera & Natraj,2013). In most cases, women try to justify how they somehow deservedthe violence thus ending up to blame themselves.
Impactof Ethnic Inequalities on the Psychological Well-being of Women
Racismand gender bias from the main aspects of racial inequalities in thesociety (Baeneria, Berik & Floro, 2015).Theprevalence of such malpractices implicates a significant level ofstress to the affected individuals thus suppressing theirpsychological structures (Cuberes & Teigneir, 2014).Someof the researchers argued that the stress is caused by both racialand gender inequalities may cause severe damage to the psychologicalresponse compared to the generic individual stressors (Bandiera &Natraj, 2013). Themost affected individuals by such levels of stress are the AfricanAmerican women (Bandiera & Natraj, 2013). Under theintersectionality aspect of the society, these women have been foundto have an experience characterized by a unique form of expression(Schober, 2013). Therefore, both sexism and racism are intertwinedand which combine to form one considerable force that devalues womenand promotes the racist perceptions of gender roles.
Throughoutthe history of the US culture, the different images of AfricanAmerican women have been dominant (Cuberes & Teigneir, 2014).Thecommonly adopted stereotypes demonstrate these women as sexuallypromiscuous, dangerous, and relatively prone to violence. On theother hand, the older women remain portrayed as passive and servile(Deere, Alvarado & Twyman, 2012). Although all the race-gendersubgroups are relatively vulnerable to challenging stereotypes, therepresentation of black womanhood translates into a system thatundermines the African American women (Cuberes & Teigneir, 2014).Assuch, this makes them more vulnerable to discrimination, oppression,and sexual violence in the ways that the white women are notexperiencing in life.
ConcernRegarding Gender Inequalities
Genderinequality is still a global issue even today. According to research,there are only four out of 135 states that have recorded significantequality measures based on gender (Deere, Alvarado & Twyman,2012). These nations are inclusive of Cuba Costa Rica, Norway, andSweden (Baeneria, Berik & Floro, 2015), in which across alldimensions of the tallies, Yemen scored the lowest.Subsequently,the enhanced gender equality measures are inclusive of health andlife expectancy, political empowerment, and the access to primaryeducation whereby the transgendered individuals are allowed similaropportunities as the others(Deere,Alvarado & Twyman, 2012). Despite the recorded progress in theadoption of gender equality measures, most of the regions in theworld are still practicing the inequality malpractices (Cuberes &Teigneir, 2014).Technically,this means that the issue of gender inequality is a global prioritysince it contributes to the decline of both economic and humandevelopment (Cuberes & Teigneir, 2014).
Throughoutthe world, the causes and the extent of gender inequality vary(Schober, 2013).Amongthe noticeable crimes perpetrated against women are inclusive ofrape, violence, and the murder of women (Schober, 2013).Sex–selective abortion also contributes to the other major factorof gender inequality (Schober, 2013). In this case, such a type ofabortion enhances the sexual exploitation, human trafficking, as wellas the demographic imbalance (Cuberes & Teigneir, 2014). Thepreference of males over females is evident in the countries of Indiaand China since they are the two most densely populated countries inthe world (Bandiera & Natraj, 2013). Women are relatively viewedas weaker humans and less intelligent as they account for adifference of over 32 million to their disadvantage compared to boys(Bandiera & Natraj, 2013). Undoubtedly, the sex-selection aspectof the society is an inhumane practice as it violates the right tolife and has consequently distorted the ratios of boys to girls insome countries.
Roleof Psychology in the Historical Gender Inequality
Forquite a long time, women are exposed to discrimination based on theirgender (Deere, Alvarado & Twyman, 2012). In most cases, womenhave been perceived as less than fully human based on the lack oflegal rights, the possession of minimal independence and the thoughtof having inferior brains (Bandiera & Natraj, 2013).Duringthe 16th century, the European explorers became interested in theunrevealed sexual and reproductive measures of various cultures(Schober, 2013). The inequality measures prevailed the society until1920 when women were allowed to vote (Cuberes & Teignier, 2014).Nevertheless, voting rights were still limited based on gender sinceit was the father who would register his wife. As such, if a womangot married to a foreigner, she would then lose her citizenship.However, it was 1934, that women were able to apply for citizenshipby themselves (Cuberes & Teignier, 2014). In this case, suchlevels of suppression had significant psychological effects on thewomen since they had no right to express their views. On the otherhand, women were primarily tasked with the domestic work thus havinglimited opportunities compared to men (Schober, 2013).Consequently,this compromised their economic and personal standards making themfeel inferior in the society.
Evidently,gender inequality has been a predominant malpractice in the societyand at a global context (Baeneria, Berik & Floro, 2015).Despitethe fact that the inequality measures vary in accordance to therespective cultures, the aspect of discrimination deprives women oftheir rights to life, education, among others (Schober, 2013).Relatively, the role of psychology in the feminist movement proves tobe significant since psychologydefinesthe measure of the damage done to women as well as providing aplatform for the practice of equality (Cuberes & Teigneir, 2014).Theethnic inequalities, on the other hand, have adverse effects on womenfollowing the discrimination practices. Relatively, this affects thepsychology of women in a more considerable way as compared topersonal stress. In a nutshell, gender inequality is a malpracticethat requires appropriate measures to be eradicated.
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Benería,L., Berik, G., & Floro, M. (2015). Gender,development and globalization: economics as if all people mattered.Routledge.
Cuberes,D., & Teignier, M. (2014). Gender inequality and economic growth:a critical review. Journalof International Development, 26(2),260-276.
DianaDeere, C., Alvarado, G. E., & Twyman, J. (2012). Genderinequality in asset ownership in latin America: female owners vshousehold heads. Developmentand Change, 43(2),505-530.
Schober,P. S. (2013). The parenthood effect on gender inequality: Explainingthe change in paid and domestic work when British couples becomeparents. EuropeanSociological Review, 29(1),74-85.