and Little Reflection of each Article
and Little Reflection of each Article
Article1. Report: Economic Cost of Child Abuse
Thereport highlights the economic costs of child abuse in Canada. Thearticle focuses on describing how child abuse affects the wholeCanadian society. Child abuse is defined as a hidden act that happensbehind closed doors perpetrated by an adult. The authors of thearticle explain the need for measuring the economic costs of childabuse. A conservative dollar estimate strategy is employed to explainthe effects of child abuse in the society. The report persuadespoliticians and policy makers to act against the problem, and worktowards finding the causes of the problem rather than theconsequences. Cost estimates are proposed to be a better strategy forcreating public awareness regarding the issue. An example is providedthat shows fundraisers who collect money to end the abuse, can employcost estimates to illustrate the need for people to invest inalleviating child abuse in the society.
Thereport provides a model called the Day Model of the Economic Costs ofViolence. The model is geared towards measuring the costs of violenceagainst women. A survey in the form of a questionnaire was conductedat the Homewood Health Centre to interview abuse survivors. From thefindings of the report, it is clear that child abuse results insignificant consequences on the individual. Moreover, victims ofchild abuse are faced with personal, health, judicial, socialservices, and education costs in an attempt to find help. TheCanadian society is evidently suffering from the consequences ofchild abuse. It is high time action be taken regarding the matter,where politicians and policy makers should be engaged to formulatelaws and effective strategies that will mitigate instances of childmaltreatment.
Article2. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome among Aboriginal People in Canada
Thissecond article focuses on child abuse among Aboriginal children inCanada. The Canadian child welfare agencies are under strictsupervision of the poor Aboriginal families because child neglect andill-treatment are common among these group. The article notes thatchild abuse became widely known due to the writings of Sigmund Freud.In Canada, between three women, one of them is a victim of sexualabuse at one point in her lifetime. Among the Aboriginal communitiesin Canada, child abuse records are higher than that of nationalaverages. The research is backed by data that indicates that childabuse among Aboriginals is a result of increased sexual abuse inresidential schools. Research further shows that sexual assaultresults in problems such as alcohol dependency when one becomes anadult. Moreover, substance abuse during and after pregnancy amongwomen was due to sexual violence during their lifetime.
Institutionalchild abuse is common among Aboriginals, where some such as EmilyRice received beatings and was sexually assaulted by Father Jackson.The Canadian government attacked Aboriginals by creating residentialschools that denied students to speak their native languages. Also,the boys and girls were denied to interact with each other, and iffound, severe punishment would follow. Aboriginal parents wouldenroll their children in these schools because they thought theinstitutions would offer proper basic needs, little did they knowthat their children were sexually abused and given rotten food. In myopinion, the Canadian government should have supported the Aboriginalfamilies instead of putting them in inhumane conditions. Sexuallyabusing young children is an inhumane act that results inpsychological disorders when the victims become adults.
Article3. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome among Aboriginal People in Canada
Thepurpose of the article is to examine alcohol use by pregnant womenbecause fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and alcohol-related birtheffects (ARBEs) are detected to new births. The project also aims toidentify some of the best practices that can be applied to mitigateFAS and ARBEs among Aboriginals. Moreover, the report discusses theintergenerational health problems associated with the residentialschool system. Drug abuse and alcoholism among students who attendedresidential schools have been found to be an outcome of theeducational experience among the Aboriginal people. The primaryobjectives of the project were, what is known about the generality ofFAS and ARBEs, the biological, psychological, social, and economiccorrelates of FAS concerning pregnant women. What is the existingevidence that links FAS and ARBEs as outcomes for attendingresidential schools and, the best practices that can be applied inthe prevention of FAS and ARBEs for the affected people and thecommunity?
Themethodology used in the report was obtaining scientific literature onthe issues of FAS and ARBEs. Unpublished reports were also used toprovide research for understanding the topic. On data collection,consideration was given to the Aboriginal people. Chapter two statesthat Aboriginal people in Canada die earlier and suffer from physicaland mental illnesses than average non-Aboriginal population. Thedeaths are caused by the internal colonial politics that havemarginalized the group from access to affordable health care. It isevident that the colonial rule significantly affected the Aboriginalcommunity as shown by the high increase of FAS and ARBEs amonginfants. On a deeper thought, the first generation that was exposedto harsh conditions in the residential schools, pass on thepsychological torture to their offspring’s. The high number ofsubstance abuse and alcohol is not just a simple matter to beignored, but it is an indication of an earlier maltreatment thathappened to the victims.
Article4. Readings: Suicide among Aboriginal People in Canada. Prepared forThe Aboriginal Healing Foundation, By: Laurence J. Kirmayer.
Thearticle primarily focused on the origin of suicide among theAboriginal community in Canada, and effective remedies that canmitigate the issue. It is estimated that in recent years theAboriginal people suffer from high rates of suicide than the averagepopulation. The article defines suicide as a direct or indirect causeof death from a victim who knows the actual results regardless ofwhether the act is positive or negative. The methods used incollecting data for the report include clinical, epidemiological, andethnographic research. In the report, suicide among the Aboriginalmainly affects youth of ages 14 to 24. Females were likely to attemptsuicide, while the males were more likely to die by suicide.Regarding marital status, men and women who are divorced or singlehad a high tendency of committing suicide than married people. TheAboriginal employ hanging, firearms, and drug overdose as some of themethods of committing suicide.
Asthe article explains, some of the origins of suicide among Aboriginalinclude psychiatric disorders, suicidal attempts and ideation,substance abuse and alcohol, developmental factors, sexualorientation, and hopelessness. The article suggests that mass media,gatekeeper training, means restriction, and peer support programs aresome of the strategies that can be used to alleviate suicide amongthe Aboriginal people. From the article, one comes to anunderstanding that the Aboriginal people are a community that needs alot of support from the government and other stakeholders. The groupis suffering from various social problems that result in suicide.Such a vice is a serious matter that poses questions as to what mightthe society be doing wrong.
Article5. List of Characteristics Common in Adult Children of Alcoholics
Thisarticle provides a list of some of the characteristics eminent byadult children of alcoholics. Adults from alcoholic homes feltisolated and became afraid of people with authority. A majority ofthem became approval seekers and lost their identity hence, unableto make significant life decisions. Raised in an alcoholicenvironment, some of these adults became para-alcoholics. Anothercharacter trait among the group of adults is that they have a lowself-esteem and continually judge themselves. A significant numberlacks the ability to stand independently and defend their actionsthus, making them give in easily to others. The alcoholic environmentmakes the child grow with self-denial, and this affects them whenthey become adults. The denial makes them lose the ability to expresstheir feelings because of the traumatic experiences they went throughin childhood.
Once the children become adults, they either marry an alcoholic orfind an alternative personality such as that of a workaholic tofulfill their abandonment needs they lacked during childhood. Someadults are scared of angry people and become terrified when they arecriticized personally. When the adults engage themselves in love andfriendship relationships, they tend to become the victims and theweaker partners. In a relationship, the adults fail to differentiatelove and pity. Inconclusively, the characteristics above indicatethat parents who engage in alcoholism lack the attention that theirbehavior not only affects the child at a younger age but also affectsthem during adulthood. The effects when they are adults seem to bemore adverse because at this juncture the individual needs tointeract and engage in various activities but the traumatic eventsduring childhood creates limitations that hinder success and otherachievements.