Summary and Reflection of Articles

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Decolonizationand Healing: Indigenous Experiences in the United States, NewZealand, Australia and Greenland

Thearticle gives an overview of the events that relate to the process ofcolonization in the United States, Greenland, Australia, and NewZealand. The paper also describes colonization as a process thattakes five distinct phases that are different but interconnected. Theintroductory part focuses on the existence of the Aboriginal peoplein Canada, stating that the Aboriginal children in the nation weresent to government-sponsored residential learning centers between1892 and 1969. The process of assimilating Aboriginal people was notlimited to Canada. Other countries such as the United States andAustralia took the children of indigenous populations to boarding andmission schools without the consent of their parents.

Thepaper also describes the process of colonization and decolonizationas a social process. The five phases that characterize these socialprocesses include denial and withdrawal, destruction and eradicationof all physical symbols of indigenous culture, denigration, surfaceaccommodation, and transformation or exploitation. During the periodof colonization, the United States had over seven hundred nativetribes. Spain, England, and France colonized it while missionariesestablished their schools in the seventeenth century. New Zealand wascolonized by England and had a Maori population of 255,000. Duringthe period of colonization, the nation had no community schools runby the church. Maori was made an official language aftercolonization, and the Maori healing was incorporated in the nation’shealth system. The English also colonized Australia and theindigenous population at the time was Aboriginal and Torres StraitIslanders, who constituted of 2.2 percent of the population. Theschools were mostly run by the church, and the children of mixedparents are particularly vulnerable to assimilation into the schools.Greenland, on the other hand, was colonized by Denmark and had apopulation of fifty-six thousand ethnic Greenlanders.

Originsof Lateral Violence in Aboriginal Communities: A Preliminary Study ofStudent-to-Student Abuse in Residential Schools

Thedefinitions section of the paper suggests that lateral violence is acluster of behaviors that are mainly brought about by residentialschools. The issue of lateral violence is prevalent among theAboriginal community and leads to oppression of communitiesespecially as a result of bullying, feuding, gossiping, and shamingamong others. The paper focuses on the reports of neglect and abusethat the children of the Aboriginal community faced at the IndianResidential Schools during their residential school discourse.Through such an experience, the paper offers an insight of the natureand reasons for the occurrence of student-to-student abuse. Theaboriginal students suffered at the hands of adults in the schoolsand fellow students.

Theprocess of colonization and invasion of Aboriginal-inhabited landaffected the people’s way of life. The indigenous groups that hadinhabited the North American region had traditional familial andeducational practices where children learned about their relationswith the natural land. Their ways of schooling were informal, andthey learned the necessary skills that would help them to sustainthemselves. The Europeans were received with hospitality anddiplomacy, but they expressed some form of superiority and regardedthe indigenous people as savages. The paper indicates how the periodof colonization was marked by unrelenting interventions by thegovernment and the church. Such interventions interrupted with thelifestyle of the indigenous people, for example by changing thepeople’s traditional governments to male-only electoral systemswhere the traditional leaders were granted minimum power. Thecreation of the Indian Act is shown in the paper to have diminishedthe rights of women and establishing new laws that were unfavorableto the people. The policies also led to the establishment of theIndian residential school systems, which the author suggests was away of getting rid of the &quotIndian problem.&quot

Theresearch background section of the paper acknowledges that there is arelationship between the historical events and the consequences ofthe Indian residential schools. It, however, notes that there is anexisting gap of knowledge on the prevalence of abuse, which occurredbetween students. A sample of survivors living in First Nationscommunities suggested that the bullying conducted by fellow studentsin the residential schools resulted in adverse effects on theirhealth and well-being. This, among other reports, brought attentionto the issue of lateral violence among students in residentialschools. The purposes of the study included the exploration of theprevalence of student-to-student abuse and identification of thefactors that contributed to the existence of the issue. The studyincluded forty-three service providers of ages ranging betweentwenty-seven and seventy-five. All the participants were asked tosign an informed consent.

Theliterature review section focuses on different aspects that relate tothe student-to-student abuse. It displays the effects that the issuecan cause especially in the early stages of the student’s life. Itshares the evidence of what bullying and other forms of adversechildhood experiences can lead to, including a variety ofdysfunctional age-linked trajectories. It also compares the forms ofvictimizations on students caused by peers and adults.

IndianSchool Survivor Alvin Dixon Spoke Out for Truth

Thearticle shares the story of Alvin Dixon and his experiences duringthe colonial period. Alvin was taken from his home at the age of tento the Alberni Residential Indian School on the Vancouver Island. Theschool was 500 kilometers away from his home. He endured beatings formany years for petty issues such as failing to speak in English.

Alvin,together with other students at the school, suffered from the crueltyexperienced in the school. The federal administration and theCanadian Red Cross even conducted inhumane experiments on the kidsregarding the minimal level of food that can support life. Alvinsuffered from malnourishment as a result of such tests.

Hesuffered under the rule of the federal government, and some of hisrights were deprived. He could not speak his native language and hadto t little food. During the graduation at grade 12, Alvin weighed 58kilograms. He then added thirty pounds after gaining the ability tofeed himself. Alvin pursued a college education at the University ofBritish Columbia and got different jobs in the fishing industry. Heeven rose to the point of an executive director at the NationalFishing Association. His greatest achievement from the schools wasgaining Christianity, but to his death, he regretted having lost hisnative language.

Originsof Lateral Violence in Aboriginal Communities

Thethemes identified in the responses generated from the study on thedifferences of being abused by the staff and the peers. The themesinclude variations in the memory of ill-treatment, the diversity oftheir emotional responses linked to the abuse, impact of the abuse onrelationships, differences in the impact on identity, and thevariations in the consequences of the abuse on general personalwell-being. The participants suggested that the abuse by peerscarried different emotional meaning compared to that by the staff.The students abused by their peers expressed emotions such as anger,frustration, self-shame, and despair. Survivors who were abused bytheir peers were more willing to share their encounter than thoseabused by the adults. There were also differences in the effects thatthe two forms of abuse caused by the social relationships as seen inthe survivors. Student-to-student abuse resulted in greatercomplication on the issue of social relationships compared to abuseby the adults. Abuse by the peers also impacted significantly on thepersonal well-being of the survivors and the problem of identity.

Thediscussion part shares on the factors that led to thestudent-to-student abuse by sharing the findings from theparticipants of the study. Some share that sexual assault and otherforms of ill-treatment in the residential schools was a regularthing. The schools were unsafe and posed threats to the lives of thestudents. The conclusion shares on the need for more research on thearea. It also shares on the revelation created by the study on theissues such as prevalence, contributing factors, and therepercussions of lateral violence in residential schools.

TheHistory of the Residential School System for Inuit

TheInuit people learned how the Southerners ate and dressed when theyintermingled with the non-Inuit through various events. Thegovernment later decided the type of food that the Inuit studentswould be given in the mission schools. Such food included acombination of traditional and Western foods. The Western foodsbecame more popular due to the influence of the government, and sometraditional foods such as raw meat were banned. The Northern Affairsalso gave the students money for clothing.

Theprocess of getting the students to and from school was mostly throughcoercion by the federal government as shared in chapter six of thearticle. Children were taken from their parents at a tender age andtransported to schools that were located in far distances. They wouldthen be returned during summer. The parents were threatened if theyfailed to take the kids to residential schools. The threats weremainly on the withdrawal of Family Allowance in the case of failureto comply. The Family Allowance ranged between $5 and $8 per childbelow the age of sixteen.