Archibald,L. (2006). Decolonizationand Healing: Indigenous Experiences in the United States, Australiaand Greenland.Ontario: Aboriginal Healing Foundation. Retrieved fromhttp://www.ahf.ca/downloads/ibpengweb.pdf
Thisarticle discusses physical and sexual abuse that was suffered byAboriginal children in Australia, Greenland, and the United States.According to the author, the abuse left scars, which have been passedfrom one generation to another. The article argues that colonizationcontinued along various paths in New Zealand, Greenland, Australia,and the United States. Colonization is seen to have different phases,which include denial of indigenous culture, damage of physicalsymbols of culture, tokenism, and denigration of indigenous beliefsystems. In the history of Greenland, Australia, New Zealand, and theUnited States, varied characteristics and permutations of phases ofcolonization can be noted. The author discusses different eventsassociated with the colonization process in the above-namedcountries. Also, the article discusses the process of decolonization,which the author indicates that it is a process that entailsaddressing historic trauma, as well as unraveling the terribleaftereffects of colonization. According to the article, historictrauma theory claims that people can be traumatized by occurrencesthat happened before their birth. Therefore, there is an associationamid history, political, social, economic, and personal experiences.Individuals require therapeutic assistance to heal from personalwounds or to handle depression, or impacts of sexual and physicalabuse. Furthermore, the article discusses promising healingactivities. According to the author, promising healing practicesdescribe approaches, models, initiatives, and techniques that aregrounded on indigenous experience, which leads to positive changes inthe lives of individuals. In addition, the author posits that thereare several similarities and differences in the indigenous techniquesto healing in Greenland, Australia, the United States, and NewZealand.
Bombay,A., Matheson, K. & Anisman, H. (2014). Originsof Lateral Violence in Aboriginal Communities: A Preliminary Study ofStudent-to-Student Abuse in Residential Schools.Ottawa: The Aboriginal Healing Foundation. Retrieved fromhttp://www.ahf.ca/downloads/lateral-violence-english.pdf
Thisarticle seeks to establish what student-to-student mishandling is, aswell as why it happened. In getting the information discussed in thearticle, the authors focused on conducting interviews involvingservice employees who worked with suburban school survivors.According to the article, learner-to-learner abuse in the suburbanschools were shared happenings and took different procedures, whichincluded bullying and varied blends of physical, emotional, andsexual ferocity committed by school mates. The authors claim that theeffects of learner-to-learner abuse on victims, communities, andperpetrators contributed to several unique adverse outcomes. Besides,according to the authors, regardless of who the culprits were, themishandlings that happened at suburban schools were anticipated tohave led to deep and persistent results on folks in view of the earlyage they encountered trauma, as well as the inadequate copingresources the kids had in handling the stressors. The articlediscusses different aspects that lead to learner-to-learner abuse.These factors include traumatic responses to mishandling, schoolstaff explicitly teaching or forcing kids to abuse other learners,extensive physical neglect in residential schools, and staff makingresidential school learners feel powerless. Furthermore, the articleprovides that suburban schools have impacted community welfaregenerally. Their impacts are linked to the large percentage ofcommunity affiliates still addressing intergenerational consequencesdirectly or indirectly. The progression of collective suffering,which exists, seems to lead to ubiquitous health and social problems.The adverse effects of student-to-student abuse are usuallyreinforced by insufficient responses.
Hawthorn,T. (2014). IndianSchool Survivor Alvin Dixon Spoke Out for Truth. TheGlobe and Mail.Retrieved fromhttp://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/indian-school-survivor-alvin-dixon-spoke-out-for-truth/article19979340/?page=all
Thisarticle shares the story of Alvin Dixon and how he survived sufferingas he went through school life. According to the article, Dixonexperienced serious beating at the age of 10, when he was sent to aresidential Indian school. At this age, he was beaten at the schoolwith a strap because of speaking the only language that he knew, themistake being that it was not English. From the story shared in thearticle, the residential school was being operated by the UnitedChurch and it was not after a long time that it was revealed that itwas a ground for sadists, who used to make helpless children sufferin the name of civilization. From the article, the author points outthat the form of suffering that Dixon and other helpless kids wentthrough was shocking due to its cruelty. According to the author,Dixon was expected by the molesters to fill out a form that provideddetails concerning what he consumed after every meal. The astonishingthing is that it came to be established that the boys who were madeto suffer were subjects of experiments carried out by the CanadianRed Cross and the federal government in order to determine theminimum nutrition that they needed to survive. From the article,Dixon was in a position to survive the residential school, despitethe suffering that he experienced. Indeed, he was capable of earninga university degree and provided counseling services to otherresidential school survivors. The author argues that Dixon became avoice of the wronged individuals and acted as an activist within thechurch that operated the school. The article presents Dixon as anachiever since he eventually became a driving force towards a publicinquiry that resulted in the development of the Truth andReconciliation Commission. Furthermore, although he went throughphysical and sexual abuse just like most of the kids, he emergedstrong and survived the ordeal.
Wikipedia(2017). NewZealand Wars.Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Zealand_Wars
Thearticle provides information concerning the New Zealand Wars, whichwere several armed fights that were in New Zealand between theindigenous Maori and the New Zealand government. The article providesa background of the conflicts, information of the wars, the strategyand tactics used, the participants in the conflicts, the weaponsutilized, as well as the aftermath of the wars. Some of theconflicts discussed by the article include the Wairau Affray, theNorthern War, the First Taranaki War, and the East Cape War amongothers. According to the article, participants in the conflicts haddifferent war tactics and strategies. The British were involved inusing European-style war, which entailed engaging opposite forces,surrounding, and capturing positions. Alternatively, the Maorifighters had perfected fighting through developing defensivepositions. From the article, vast areas of land became repossessedfrom the Maori by the administration following the conflicts. Despitearound half of the land being returned to the Maori management, theoriginal owners did not receive it. There were social and economicimpacts resulting from the wars and the Maori tribes were the oneswho became affected.