Synthesis of Articles

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Research indicates that various ways can be used to analyze thestyles, features and significances of leadership in the society. Thedifference in ideologies can also be shown clearly in differentcontexts such as articles among other platforms. This paper is asynthesis of two articles regarding the ideas of ethical use ofpowers, motivation and persuasion.

One study (Reitzug, 1994), attempts to show how an increasing rate ofdiversity and large magnitude of other prevailing norms have promotedthe need for the ethical use of the powers by the school leadership.Previously, these norms and diversity issues were not common amongstudents hence ignored or given minimum consideration. The schoolmanagement was seen as invisible and less attentive to these issues.However, the management was seen to act on these issues once a moreserious issue regarding their violation arose among students. Acloser analysis of this situation indicates clearly that this is notan ethical use of the powers by the school leadership as the ultimateauthority in this context. It is expected that institutions oflearning should be free from negative diversity. It is, therefore,the role of the school management to improve their criteria forconsidering and addressing this issue as stipulated by epistemologyand the ontological. Some of the theories used are the interpretivismand the structural functionalism which suggest that leadership is notonly involved in regulation of the law but also maintenance of thesocial order which motivates all people.

Another study by (Kacmar, Carlson, &amp Harris, 2013) attempts toshow the impact of the influence from well-behaved leaders. It is anethical issue and an achievement for the followers to note theexemplification of their leaders. Research has shown that there is aclose relationship between exemplary performance and the work done byleaders. However, this principle holds when the ethical leadership ofthe leaders is said to be high. Besides, it is expected that thoseleaders who treat their followers with less ethical leadership skillsshould expect the same negative reception from the same public.

In (Kacmar, Carlson, &amp Harris, 2013) study shows that leadersdevelop some influence that encourages their followers to use theirdecisions. The social learning theory explains how leaders influencetheir followers by acting as role models. It is evident that this isa positive use of the leadership powers and the ability to persuade.The social exchange theory compliments the social learning theory byarguing that leaders’ actions are opposite to their futureobligations. This feature can be related to paying back a favor. Thatis, those followers who are loyal to their leaders expect that theseleaders will also come to their rescue in case they are in need.These two theories consider the ethical leadership as thedemonstration of good conduct by leaders both in personal andinterpersonal relationships with other people.

In conclusion, these two articles give a different view concerningleadership styles and features. Good leadership not only does itenhance the lifestyle of the followers but also harms the welfare ofthe followers when leadership is given to the wrong person.


Kacmar, K., Carlson, D., &amp Harris, K. (2013). Interactive Effectof Leaders’ Influence Tactics and Ethical Leadership on Work Effortand Helping Behavior. The Journal Of Social Psychology,153(5), 577-597.

Reitzug, U. C. (1994). Diversity, power and influence: Multipleperspectives on the ethics of school leadership. Journal of SchoolLeadership, 4(2), 197-222.