TO WHAT EXTENT CAN NICHOLAS II BE BLAMED FOR THE 1917 REVOLUTION?

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TOWHAT EXTENT CAN NICHOLAS II BE BLAMED FOR THE 1917 REVOLUTION?

Inwhat is known as the February Revolution, the people took to thestreets due to the dissatisfaction that they faced in the country.During the time, the government was led by a Tsar who was Nicholas IIat the time. The economy was poor with rampant corruption ingovernment. At the same time, the country was involved in World War Iwhere it suffered great casualties. The nation was not a match tothose it went with during the battle, which led to great casualties.1The hungry citizens joined with the industrial workers, and they tookto the street to protest. Efforts to quell the protests did not bearfruits, and eventually, Nicholas II left the throne to his brotherwho turned it down.2The current paper seeks to show that there are several factors, whichworked against the Tsar leading to the revolution, which means thathe was largely to blame for the uprising in the year 1917.

Unpreparedto Rule as a Tsar

Althoughhe was the first born in his family where his father was the emperor,he did not get training on leadership and statesmanship. On thecontrary, he was trained as a soldier. The father did not think thathe was capable of leading the Empire and thus the lack of training.3He also lacked the intellectual capacity to make complex decisions,which would hold the empire together. Nicholas` mother also played abig role in the failures of the ruler. Even when he was fully grown,the mother treated him like a child. That took away his ability tothink independently and had to rely on another person to makedecisions for him. Additionally, it increased his reliance ondecisions made by women, especially his wife, Alexandra.4

Declarationof War on Japan and World War I

NicolasII had expressed interest in Asia especially Korea. The Japanese alsohad the same interest. In 1904, Russia went to war with Japan overthe control of the territory. Despite the presence of a railway,Russia did not have soldiers and other logistics on the ground. Theresult was that Japan had the upper hand. Additionally, there was nounity among the Russian generals.5Therefore, the decisions they made were not unilateral. The war endedin 1905 with Russia suffering great losses. The loss of the war alsoled to the opposition at home, which culminated into the 1905revolution. World War I also contributed to the revolution.6Although he was hesitant to join the war, the decision to join camelater. It is also at that time he dismissed his chief of generalstaff and took the position. His army lacked basic provisions, and hedid not have the experience to lead it. The war led to greatcasualties on the Russian side, which further created feelings ofresentment among the people.

LeavingHis Wife in Charge While He Was at War

Likenoted earlier, he fired his chief of general staff shortly after thebeginning of the war. Therefore, he had to lead his army to war sincehe took charge. That is despite strong opposition by his ministers.While he was away, his wife Alexandria was left in charge ofpolitical operations. In his absence, there was the replacement ofcapable ministers who were replaced by sycophants’.7That led to feelings of repressions, which first caused theassassination of Rasputin. Despite that, he did not make changes.

InconsiderateTowards the Citizens of Russia

TheTsar did not have any direct contact with his subjects. On thecontrary, he maintained a private life with his family. Despite hislove for the military, he was never composed when they held formalparades. The distance between him and his subjects kept him out ofreality. He did not understand the concerns of the people.8When there was unrest, he was quick to blame others for it. Some ofthe failures that the people felt uncomfortable about includedmilitary humiliation. He also failed to understand the connectionbetween war and poor economic performance for his country.9Similarly, any pledges he made to the people were not sincere, whichled to disquiet among the subjects. He also failed to realize theincreasing number of industrial workers in the Empire. He also failedto read the mood of the people at the time. The people distrusted hiswife and Rasputin. Failure to understand this led him to leave thewife in charge of political affairs when he left for war.10Keeping out of touch with the citizens also blinded on the unity ofthe moderates and the radicals uniting to mount a revolution.

Conclusion

Alarge amount of blame on the revolution goes to the Tsar for themistakes he made by omission and commission. From poor leadership andthe reliance on advice from the wrong quarters led to the tworevolutions in Russia. He also happened to make great miscalculationsabout the capacity of the country militarily and otherwise. Moreover,he disregarded warning from those with experience at the expense ofthe empire.

Bibliography

Avrich,Paul.&nbspRussianAnarchists.New York: Princeton University Press, 2015.https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&amplr=&ampid=f7J9BgAAQBAJ&ampoi=fnd&amppg=PR5&ampdq=Russian+Anarchists&ampots=SYUD3GGliR&ampsig=ky3JclQRak4J8F3iFCei9uSrfxI

Chamberlin,William Henry.&nbspTheRussian Revolution, Volume I: 1917-1918: From the Overthrow of theTsar to the Assumption of Power by the Bolsheviks.Vol. 1. New York, NY: Princeton University Press, 2014.https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&amplr=&ampid=wff_AwAAQBAJ&ampoi=fnd&amppg=PP1&ampdq=The+Russian+Revolution,+Volume+I.%22+&ampots=CYH91yq27L&ampsig=K3S2-SzS914jpzmmQh0O9yIjPEc

Gatrell,Peter. &quotTsarist Russia at War: The View from Above,1914–February 1917.&quot&nbspTheJournal of Modern History&nbsp87,no. 3 (2015): 668-700.http://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/38891608/Gatrell_2015.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A&ampExpires=1490616942&ampSignature=AGtdbf%2F%2F3Ae19iW30waLj3LrnNM%3D&ampresponse-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DTsarist_Russia_at_War_the_View_from_Abov.pdf

Gerwarth,Robert, and Erez Manela, eds.&nbspEmpiresat War: 1911-1923.Boston: OUP Oxford, 2014.https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&amplr=&ampid=r9P1AwAAQBAJ&ampoi=fnd&amppg=PP1&ampdq=related:IpXKpfBRTAoJ:scholar.google.com/&ampots=Us4WQZFyil&ampsig=n9jkYCachQ-jmmZkd8HCEAhL_6o

Koenker,Diane P., and William G. Rosenberg.&nbspStrikesand Revolution in Russia, 1917.New York: Princeton University Press, 2014.https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&amplr=&ampid=DBEABAAAQBAJ&ampoi=fnd&amppg=PP1&ampdq=Strikes+and+Revolution+in+Russia&ampots=lskX115ThX&ampsig=9A4EMkTeQJDFndYI_bqisWLPsbs

Mawdsley,Evan. &quotRevolution, Civil War, and the `Long` First World War inRussia.&quot&nbspJournalof Military and Strategic Studies&nbsp16,no. 2 (2015).http://jmss.journalhosting.ucalgary.ca/jmss/index.php/jmss/article/view/607

Rogger,Hans.&nbspRussiain the Age of Modernization and Revolution 1881-1917.Boston: Routledge, 2014.https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&amplr=&ampid=k70eBAAAQBAJ&ampoi=fnd&amppg=PP1&ampdq=To+what+extent+can+Nicholas+II+be+blamed+for+the+1917+Revolution%3F&ampots=V9QZq1yijB&ampsig=Y7wQItC2MB53QX86xQ65uZpObtg

Sanborn,Joshua A.&nbspImperialApocalypse: The Great War and the Destruction of the Russian Empire.Boston: Oxford University Press, USA, 2014.https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&amplr=&ampid=UBENBAAAQBAJ&ampoi=fnd&amppg=PP1&ampdq=related:8ZYB-FBxCaQJ:scholar.google.com/&ampots=rCrC9mcYjB&ampsig=4rSYhoN4p2K0NJkffS5K8Oyuzgc

Sukhanov,Nikolai Nikolaevich.&nbspTheRussian Revolution 1917: A Personal Record by NN Sukhanov.New York, NY: Princeton University Press, 2014.https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&amplr=&ampid=6-D_AwAAQBAJ&ampoi=fnd&amppg=PP1&ampdq=The+Russian+Revolution+1917:+A+Personal+Record+by+NN+Sukhanov.+&ampots=BFIRXBiptv&ampsig=ylaTuzMxSgNRPL_ZOnF3ArVpN3s

Wcislo,Francis William.&nbspReformingRural Russia: State, Local Society, And National Politics, 1855-1914.New York: Princeton University Press, 2014.https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&amplr=&ampid=7B4ABAAAQBAJ&ampoi=fnd&amppg=PP1&ampdq=Reforming+rural+Russia:+State,+local+society,+and+national+politics,+1855-1914.+&ampots=kEE9b315Ng&ampsig=2wNf2zQFnQNdpWcsHDvFTeuHX-E

1 Henry Chamberlin, The Russian Revolution, Volume I: 1917-1918: From the Overthrow of the Tsar to the Assumption of Power by the Bolsheviks. Vol. 1. (New York, NY: Princeton University Press, 2014). https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&amplr=&ampid=wff_AwAAQBAJ&ampoi=fnd&amppg=PP1&ampdq=The+Russian+Revolution,+Volume+I.%22+&ampots=CYH91yq27L&ampsig=K3S2-SzS914jpzmmQh0O9yIjPEc

2 Peter Gatrell, &quotTsarist Russia at War: The View from Above, 1914–February 1917.&quot&nbspThe Journal of Modern History&nbsp87, no. 3 (2015): 670. http://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/38891608/Gatrell_2015.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A&ampExpires=1490616942&ampSignature=AGtdbf%2F%2F3Ae19iW30waLj3LrnNM%3D&ampresponse-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DTsarist_Russia_at_War_the_View_from_Abov.pdf

3 Evan Mawdsley, &quotRevolution, Civil War, and the `Long` First World War in Russia.&quot&nbspJournal of Military and Strategic Studies&nbsp16, no. 2 (2015). http://jmss.journalhosting.ucalgary.ca/jmss/index.php/jmss/article/view/607

4 Nikolaevich Sukhanov,&nbspThe Russian Revolution 1917: A Personal Record by NN Sukhanov. (New York, NY: Princeton University Press, 2014). https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&amplr=&ampid=6-D_AwAAQBAJ&ampoi=fnd&amppg=PP1&ampdq=The+Russian+Revolution+1917:+A+Personal+Record+by+NN+Sukhanov.+&ampots=BFIRXBiptv&ampsig=ylaTuzMxSgNRPL_ZOnF3ArVpN3s

5 Hans Rogger,&nbspRussia in the Age of Modernization and Revolution 1881-1917. (Boston: Routledge, 2014). https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&amplr=&ampid=k70eBAAAQBAJ&ampoi=fnd&amppg=PP1&ampdq=To+what+extent+can+Nicholas+II+be+blamed+for+the+1917+Revolution%3F&ampots=V9QZq1yijB&ampsig=Y7wQItC2MB53QX86xQ65uZpObtg

6 William Wcislo,&nbspReforming Rural Russia: State, Local Society, And National Politics, 1855-1914. (New York: Princeton University Press, 2014). https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&amplr=&ampid=7B4ABAAAQBAJ&ampoi=fnd&amppg=PP1&ampdq=Reforming+rural+Russia:+State,+local+society,+and+national+politics,+1855-1914.+&ampots=kEE9b315Ng&ampsig=2wNf2zQFnQNdpWcsHDvFTeuHX-E

7 Joshua Sanborn,&nbspImperial Apocalypse: The Great War and the Destruction of the Russian Empire. (Boston: Oxford University Press, USA, 2014). https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&amplr=&ampid=UBENBAAAQBAJ&ampoi=fnd&amppg=PP1&ampdq=related:8ZYB-FBxCaQJ:scholar.google.com/&ampots=rCrC9mcYjB&ampsig=4rSYhoN4p2K0NJkffS5K8Oyuzgc

8 Robert Gerwarth and Erez Manela, eds, Empires at War: 1911-1923. (Boston: OUP Oxford, 2014). https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&amplr=&ampid=r9P1AwAAQBAJ&ampoi=fnd&amppg=PP1&ampdq=related:IpXKpfBRTAoJ:scholar.google.com/&ampots=Us4WQZFyil&ampsig=n9jkYCachQ-jmmZkd8HCEAhL_6o

9 Diane Koenker and William G. Rosenberg.&nbspStrikes and Revolution in Russia, 1917. (New York: Princeton University Press, 2014). https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&amplr=&ampid=DBEABAAAQBAJ&ampoi=fnd&amppg=PP1&ampdq=Strikes+and+Revolution+in+Russia&ampots=lskX115ThX&ampsig=9A4EMkTeQJDFndYI_bqisWLPsbs

10 Paul Avrich,&nbspRussian Anarchists. (New York: Princeton University Press, 2015). https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&amplr=&ampid=f7J9BgAAQBAJ&ampoi=fnd&amppg=PR5&ampdq=Russian+Anarchists&ampots=SYUD3GGliR&ampsig=ky3JclQRak4J8F3iFCei9uSrfxI