Total Management of Quality

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TotalManagement of Quality

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19thFeb 2017


Thispaper explores total quality management methodologies or processesused by different organizations to ensure that services of highquality are delivered to their customers. Quality has become animportant point of focus and therefore organizations are forced togrow conscious of the competitive potential of quality. This researchfocuses on the U.S Postal Services, a well-known company that coversthe sending of postage in the whole country.

Higherstandards are demanded in a world threatened by the reality of everdiminishing resources that is running concurrently with theunpredictable economical and political climate of today. Theseuncertainties are an important instrument that brings the evolutionof quality management within organizations to face the steadycompetition.

Keywords:Quality management, customers, six sigma philosophy, xerox casestudy, product, process, design

TotalQuality Management Methodologies

Accordingto (Palande,&amp Sai, 2014),quality means the conformance to specifications. The quality of aproduct can be determined through asking whether a product does whatit is designed to do. Quality management enables an organization toremain consistent in the provision of services and in themanufacturing of products. There are components that make up qualitymanagement and they are planning, assurance, control and improvement.Quality management enables the fetching of a higher price for acommodity that is made in higher standards that are way above thenormal standards. Organizations work hard to ensure qualitymanagement is attained in delivering services to their customers inorder to beat the competition from other organizations that offer thesame services. This is because customers do not want poor services ascompetition focuses on quality and not prices. The management ofquality takes to consideration many aspects that include theprocesses involved, the design considered and the involvedstatistical processes of control.

TheU.S Postal Services is a company in the U.S.A. that is independentlyrun under the federal government for the offering of postal servicesin the U.S. Quality management in U.S.PS is a tool that is pertinentto the provision of services in a field that faces high competitionin the provision of postal services. The quality managementstrategies that have been employed by the U.S PS go a long way toentreat their clients and sustain long-term relationships. Inrelation to the work done by (Niknejad&amp Petrovic, 2014),the U.S PS has emphasized on quality by including the inspection ofhow the offer their service and the use of a gauge that would help topinpoint the various areas that are fundamental in the management ofa manufacturing process have been employed. Their contributions,(Niknejad&amp Petrovic, 2014),involved the consideration of quality early in the production phaseof designing a product, in order to lower the cost of production,while at the same time maintaining the increased production of highquality commodities. Organizations come up with different qualitymanagement methodologies to ensure the delivery of quality servicesto their customers.

Thereare two types of quality management: traditional quality managementand modern quality management. In traditional quality management,inspection is involved where only good products and services areconsidered and bad products isolated whereas in modern qualitymanagement, quality drives the productivity machine. Qualityplanning, control and improvement as a methodology used byorganizations requires clients, operations and the organization.Marketing is used in this methodology as a way of addressing theneeds of the clients. The U.S PS will therefore design a service tomeet the need of the clients or work with the clients on thespecification of designs that shall fit within the capabilities ofproduction. After the concept of the design and the particularspecifications have been combined, a suitable design of high qualityis agreed upon. This happens with the factoring in mind that theoperations must run continually to ensure that the commodities areproduced as the specifications that outline the conformation of theneeded quality dictate. There is a lot of learning, supervision,routine maintenance of machinery and operations inspection that needto be done in the organization. Variances of operations processes andproducts are the characteristics and aspects of a product are used asthe first determinants that help in the making of plans for theplanning of a product’s quality. This is deemed important since ithelps the U.S PS in the deciding of which product characteristics areto be kept or to be foregone, in order to satisfy the customers’need.

Thequality planner for the U.S PS sets standards and these standardshelp to determine the level of quality that is needed for eachproduct characteristic after deciding on what techniques ofmeasurement shall be used. The standards that are considered are thedeterminants of the level to which errors can be allowed, to either amaximum or a minimum. A testing program is established afterstandards have been set and this is done to inspect the products fordefects. Corrections should be done incase defects are noticed by thequality controllers. This should be done after the primary issueshave been determined. Causes could include lack of training, unclearprocedures and defective raw materials and so on. When all this isdone, the whole production process is put under thorough scrutiny andunder optimum control while making the improvements that are needed.The most suitable way for the prevention of problems in quality isthrough the formulating products by use of intricate error freemethods while at the same time collaborating with the raw materialsuppliers to curb errors. Rigorous education and training of theworkers also goes a long way to preventing problems. Trainedpersonnel is capable of doing preventive maintenance of the machineryand equipment. Errors occurred should be amended instantaneously.Complete overhaul of machinery and whole production systems can alsobe done to take care of foreseen errors or repetitive errors.

Qualityand financial performances are intimately related. The bet way ofaddressing this relationship is through understanding the correlationof cost and quality. A prevailing impression in the area of qualityis calculation, which includes deterrence, assessment, externalcatastrophe and internal failure cost classes related to quality.Every of these things except the deterrence cost are costs thatresult from doing things the wrong way during the first step.Conveying of cost to low quality is a problem that can be dealt withas any other cost is addressed, since cost is the most importantconcern of managers. Considering quality to be a cost provides astrong method of communicating and controlling. A reduction in theprice of quality could lead to a significant advance in profitmaking.

Thecost of quality associated with products and services- which includedeterrence costs, assessment costs, extricate and intricate botchcosts- involves the prevention of poor quality and some other coststhat arise after the cost of poor quality is incurred. Deterrencecosts are the costs incurred in order to prevent defects even beforethose defects have shown up. This can be possible and is achievedthrough training in the ways of bringing bout continuous improvementand also through the increase in supply of quality raw materials thathave been purchased. Assessment costs are incurred through routinechecks of evaluating systems and processes done by the operatingsystem to determine problems and costs such as costs of detectingdefects. As preventive measures improves quality, assessment costsdecrease the cost of quality, because fewer resources shall be neededfor the inspection of quality. Intricate botch cost results fromdefects that are realized when a product or service is being made.Here the cost is on repair as when a product is found to be defectiveduring production it is either scrapped or repaired. Extricate botchcost is realized when a problem is detected after the customer hasbeen reached by the product or commodity. They include warranty cost,liabilities that arise from legal suits or reimbursements, the priceof the product, mislaid business and customer goodwill. Externalfailure cost erodes market share and profits as repairing a good fromcustomers hand is costly. A dissatisfied client may inadvertentlyadvertise the product badly through the giving of an honest reviewover their interaction with the product thus giving a negative reviewof the product to other potential customers.

Fortotal quality management, organizations focus on their customers. Anorganization therefore become customer oriented and is clear aboutwho its customers are at every level of the process. Armed with theinformation, the company strives to provide more value to them. Beingcustomer oriented focuses on the needs of internal customers also inthe value adding chain to avoid conflicts within the organization. Isimportant to gain the attention and focus of the customer in order tounderstand what the customer considers or thinks about, as pertainingto the quality of a product. There is no any pre-determined level ofquality for customers since the needs, values and expectations of thecustomers constantly change and are more likely to demand for morequality. Companies need to improve constantly their productions tomeet the ever changing and growing needs of the customers. Productperformance involves fitness, availability, reliability andmaintainability for use for the customer. Companies that insist onoffering service always find more efficient and better ways toprovide services to the customers even when the customers are notcomplaining. Such companies will provide product warranty in such away that the customer is always assured of a product guarantee to thesatisfaction of a customer. The price of a product, on the otherhand, is an indicator of the value of a product or service to thecustomer and customer’s willingness to spend his or her money forthe benefits he or she gets from the product or service. The ultimatesatisfaction of a customer is dependent on the whole interactionbetween them and the organization with whom they conduct business.The interaction is not on the product alone.

TheU.S PS should go as far as pleasing their customers is concerned.Clients who experience customized attention and interaction whilebeing served are most likely to spread the word of faith in anorganization to others. The problem, however, lies in the fact thatcustomers cannot receive the kind of attention they would want. It ishowever important that if the U.S PS will raise the expectancy ofgood treatment to their customers, they will always be forced to golevels higher to keep the interest of the customers. To please theclients, continuous improvement is mandatory.

TheU.S Postal Services need to understand every need that theircustomers have. There are key notes that they should focus on inorder to achieve customer satisfaction, in order to generate successfor the business. Serious marketing inputs go along way into helpingunderstand the needs of the clients or customers. The quality of thekind of service offered determines a customer’s: consistencyguarantee, understanding, receptiveness, and many other relevantpsychological considerations. Meeting customers needs is the leastinvestment that a company can make to remain in business. They shouldprovide delighters or exciters in order to remain competitive.

Inthe U.S PS, there are employees who should effectively manage thecustomer-contact employees. These employees should be consideredingeniously, accorded indispensable skill advancement and empowered,to outweigh the needs of the customers. This should be done by beingcommitted to the customers, offering services whose standards conformto the need of the client, preparation, enablement and effectivemanagement of the complaints lodged.

Determiningcustomer fulfilment is important too as their comment is vital to thecorporation because through reviews, it will learn how fulfilled itsclients are with its merchandises and amenities and occasionallyabout the competitor’s merchandises and amenities (Talib,Rahman, &amp Qureshi, 2012).The measure of client approval allows the U.S PS to realize theclients thoughts over how they are performing while addressing ofclients needs. It also helps to relate the performance of theorganization in view of what the competitors offer. They get tobrainstorm on what areas they need to improve, both in the design andin delivery of these services. They are also able to track trends tounderstand whether changes in the actual sense result inimprovements.

Innumerical investigation, the performance of a product is influencedby production inadequacies, ecological reasons and human differencesin using the merchandise. First-class services is near itsperformance target consistently all through the merchandise’s lifespan under all diverse working conditions. The settings of productsor process parameters are identified by good design to minimize thesensitivity of design to sources of variation in the factory and inuse. Insensitive products to external sources are called robust. Forinstance, a television whose picture quality varies withenvironmental conditions such as room temperature would not beregarded as robust. Investigational design is amongst the mostpowerful methods for refining superiority and increasing efficiency.By use of experiments, variations are purposely presented into themethod or system so that their effects on the efficiencycharacteristic or response of the system or method can be observed.Investigational design is any trial that can be twisted to give aneeded or desired change in the input variables of a procedure toobserve the productivity reaction. It is a methodical operation ofconventional variables, in which the outcome of these controls isunderstood, deductions are prepared and outcomes instigated. Thechief objectives of a deliberate trial are to determine the variablesand their magnitude that influences the response regulate theintensities for these variables and determine how to manipulatethese variables to control the response. It is not adequate tocontrol procedures, examine production, detect and eliminate flawsand trust on client response. To progress in quality, one needs tolook upstream at the strategy stage since that is where qualitystrategy begins. Quality must be designed in the beginning, for itcannot be inspected later. Experimental design is an arithmeticaltraining that recognizes the variables in a procedure or merchandisethat are the crucial limitations or excess substantial variations inthe procedure.

Accordingto (Dai,Zhou, &amp Xu, 2012),Taguchi’s statistical approach to quality control is based onquality robustness, Taguchi loss function and target specifications.All methods, measures and merchandises ought to be considered to bequality robust for they will deliver a uniform and consistent outputregardless of the type of product or variety of adverse conditionsthat exist in production environment. His loss function indicates therelationship of product effort and quality. As production effortscause deviation from a customer’s quality standard, the cost toboth the producer and customer increases. The more the productsdeviate from the quality standard, the more likely it will break downand cause the user customer, downtime costs, and the producer,warranty or guarantee costs. Equipment that most closely meets thequality standard is least costly. The target specifications, thetarget of production should always be the quality standard, not somelower or upper level of allowable variation.


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Product design







Qualityutility expansion is a process by which cross-sectional groupsinterpret client’s wants into suitable design necessities at everystage of the merchandise expansion course. Customer requirements areoften vague and it is unusual for some of them to conflict with eachother, (Paraschivescu&amp Ăprioară, 2014).Here the product does not fully meet the customer needs because sincethe technical product specifications are expressed in a differentlanguage than are the needs of the customer and hence the voice ofthe customer is often lost. QFD is a client motivated preparationprocedure to direct the design, producing and promoting ofmerchandises. It attempts to eradicate the cavity concerning whatclients need in a novel product and what the merchandise mustprovide.

Asaddressed by the six-sigma philosophy, defects in production may bedue to omitted processing, processing errors, equipment set-uperrors, missing components and alteration faults. A decent proceduredesign averts the occurrence of faults. This is called zero qualitymechanism (Shafer&amp Moeller, 2012),which consists of: examination for issues that lead to mistakes, notthe subsequent imperfection 100 percent review and speedy action. Itis because people make errors unwittingly. Poka-yoka is a techniquefor fail safe or error proofing procedures using instinctivemaneuvers or systems to dodge simple human fault.

Inview of the Xerox case study to conclude, the U.S.P.S should executeseveral strategies that are to my view important especially in theselling of their service. First, they should establish a strongstandard for their corporation on the dockets of the presentation andthe processes of sales. They should be dynamic in reviewing how theyprepare for the meetings for sales. They should also learn importantand innovative methods that would be of help in the analyzing ofcustomer needs. They should also acquaint themselves with variouspsychological strategies that influence the reasoning of customers inthe prices of their services. They should also consider to traintheir employees on how to deal with the protests of clients in apersuasive way.


Dai,Y., Zhou, S. X., &amp Xu, Y. (2012). Competitive and collaborativequality and warranty management in supply chains. Productionand Operations Management.

Niknejad,A., &amp Petrovic, D. (2014). Optimisation of integrated reverselogistics networks with different product recovery routes. EuropeanJournal of Operational Research,238(1),143–154.

Palande,P., &amp Sai, S. (2014). Total Quality Management: A ConceptualAnalysis. JournalOf Commerce And Management Thought,5(1),148.

Paraschivescu,A. O., &amp Ăprioară, F. M. C. (2014). Strategic QualityManagement. EconomyTransdisciplinarity Cognition,17(1),19–27.

Shafer,S. M., &amp Moeller, S. B. (2012). The effects of Six Sigma oncorporate performance: An empirical investigation. Journalof Operations Management,30(7–8),521–532.

Talib,F., Rahman, Z., &amp Qureshi, M. N. (2012). Total quality managementin service sector : a literature review. InternationalJournal of Business Innovation and Research,6(3),259–301.