Treatment and Prevention Table

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Treatmentand Prevention Table

Medical Management or Treatment

Medical Setting

Surgical Management or Treatment

Surgical Setting

Prevention Activities

Prevention Setting

1. Heart disease

Administering medications that widen the arteries or lower blood pressure, for instance, Nitrates, Antiplatelets, and Statins.

Outpatient or inpatient facility

  • Performing surgical procedure to open up the arteries that are blocked.

  • Bypassing the arteries through Coronary artery bypass grafting.

  • Performing heart transplant in case the heart no longer functions properly.

Theatre

  • Taking a high-fibre, low-fat diet – grains, vegetables, and fresh fruits to help reduce blockages of the arteries due to low levels of cholesterol.

  • Avoiding too much sugar to lower the risks of developing diabetes since diabetes dramatically increases the chances of developing chronic heart disease.

  • Exercising regularly to maintain a healthy weight to prevent one from developing high blood pressure.

Home

2. Cancer

It is possible to treat cancer by killing cancer cells with a single or different chemotherapy drugs. Various drugs, which work differently can be effective to kill more cancer cells and help to lower the risk of cancer cells becoming more resistant to a particular chemo drug.

Outpatient or inpatient facility

  • Tumor removal, for those who have developed tumor.

  • Debulking, in case removing the entire tumor is likely to damage a particular organ or the entire body. This process involves removing parts of the tumor and helps other forms of treatment to work better.

Theatre

  • Maintaining a healthy lifestyle.

  • Taking vaccines or drugs that lower the likelihood of getting cancer.

  • Avoiding being exposed to substances that stimulate the proliferation of cancerous cells.

  • Avoiding smoking tobacco since smoking increases the risks of developing cancer of the mouth, lung, oral cavity, throat, kidney, pancreas, larynx, bladder, and cervix.

  • Avoiding being exposed to secondhand smoke to lower the chances of developing this condition.

  • Taking a healthy diet – plenty of vegetables and fruits, grains, beans, and low-calorie foodstuffs.

  • Limiting intake of processed meat and consumption of alcohol.

  • Taking diets supplemented with mixed nuts and olive oil helps women reduce the risk of getting breast cancer.

Home

3. Stroke (cerebrovascular diseases)

  • Administering Alteplase IV r-tPA via an IV in the patient’s arm to improve the flow of blood through dissolving the clot. This medication saves life and minimizes the long term impact of stroke when administered in time.

Outpatient or inpatient facility

  • Hemorrhagic stroke is treated through endovascular embolization, which involves blocking of the aneurysm by inserting soft metal mesh or coil into it to prevent or stop bleeding.

  • Ischemic stroke is treated through carotid endarterectomy, which involves removal of plaque accumulation in carotid arteries

Theatre

  • Exercising regularly to keep a healthy weight.

  • Controlling blood pressure.

  • Avoiding smoking and alcohol consumption.

  • Taking a healthy diet (more fruits, vegetables, grains, and foods with less cholesterol and sugar).

Home

4. Chronic lower respiratory diseases

  • Administering bronchodilators such as beta2-agonists, anticholinergics, corticosteroids, or phosphodiesterase-4 to ease breathing difficulties and flare ups.

  • Using devices known as nebulizers or inhalers.

Outpatient or inpatient facility

  • Lung volume reduction through bullectomy to remove a portion of the damaged lung or both lungs to make room for the remaining parts to function better.

  • Carrying out lung transplant to replace a damaged lung with a healthier one from a donor.

Theatre

  • Avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol consumption.

  • Maintaining a healthy weight through exercising regularly.

Home

5. Accidents (unintentional injuries)

Administering antibiotics in case of a minor injury.

Outpatient or inpatient facility

Surgery is performed in case of a severe accident.

Theatre

Some of the primary components of prevention of accidents are those inclined towards road safety, for instance:

  • Fastening seat-belts.

  • Improving awareness of the risks of driving under the influence of alcohol.

  • Avoiding using the mobile phone while driving

  • avoiding driving at high speeds.

Home

6. Diabetes

Injecting insulin into the body to stimulate sugar breakdown by the body and maintain normal sugar levels.

Inpatient or outpatient facility.

  • Carrying out Roux-en-y Gastric Bypass to alter the GI tract and cause food particles to bypass the upper part of the small intestine and most portions of the stomach. This procedure results in significant loss of weight.

  • Carrying out Sleeve Gastrectomy to remove a big part of the stomach to cause weight-loss.

  • Placing adjustable Gastric Band around the stomach’s upper part to cause substantial loss of weight.

Theatre

  • Exercising regularly to maintain a healthy weight.

  • Controlling blood pressure.

  • Avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol consumption.

  • Taking a healthy diet – more fruits, vegetables, grains, and foods with less cholesterol and sugar).

Home

7. Alzheimer`s disease

  • Administering Cholinesterase inhibitors such as Galantamine, Rivastigmine, and Donepezil to delay the process, which destroys the primary neurotransmitter of the nervous system

  • Administering N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists such as Memantine to regulate the functioning of glutamate, a vital neurotransmitter in the brain that is involved in memory and learning.

Hospital

  • Implanting a device that will act as a pacemaker into a patient’s brain during its early stages. The device is implanted to provide deep brain stimulation, reverse cognitive decline, and boost memory.

Theatre

Taking certain steps, which prevent getting diseases that are linked with high risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease by:

  • Taking healthy and balanced diets.

  • Exercising regularly, avoiding smoking.

  • Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption.

  • Maintaining a healthy weight.

  • Controlling the blood pressure via frequent health tests.

  • Taking medication as prescribed by the doctor.

Home

8. Influenza and Pneumonia

  • Administering antibiotics to cure bacterial pneumonia though it might take quite a while to ascertain the type of bacteria causing this disease and to prescribe the most effective antibiotic

  • Administering cough drugs to calm cough to help an individual to rest since coughing helps to move fluids from the lungs.

  • Administering fever or pain relievers such as acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and aspirin.

  • Administering fluids intravenously via drips.

  • In case one needs breathing assistance, they can be admitted to an intensive care unit to be put on a breathing machine (ventilator).

Inpatient or outpatient facility.

For severe cases, chest surgery may be recommended to remove damaged or dead tissue from the lungs to reconnect lung tissue at the points of these resections.

Theatre

  • Maintaining good hygienic standards to prevent spreading of germs.

  • Covering the nose and mouth with a piece of tissue paper or handkerchief when coughing or sneezing.

  • Throwing away used tissue papers immediately.

  • Washing hands regularly to prevent germs from being transferred from objects to people.

  • Maintaining a healthy lifestyle, for example, avoiding smoking since this can damage the lungs and increase the risk of infection.

Home

9. Nephritis

  • Prescribing antibiotics to control problems associated with nephritis, for example high blood pressure, anemia, water retention, high cholesterol, and bone problems.

  • Carrying out hemodialysis to divert blood to an external machine, for filtration after which it is returned to the body.

  • Carrying out peritoneal dialysis to pump fluid into the cavity in the belly to remove waste products from the blood that passes through the vessels that line internals walls of the tummy.

Inpatient or outpatient facility.

Carrying out a kidney transplant to place a well-functioning kidney from a living or dead donor into an individual whose kidneys are not functioning properly.

Theatre

  • Taking healthy diets (food with less calories and low fat content).

  • Avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol consumption.

  • Exercising regularly to keep a healthy weight.

  • Controlling blood pressure to prevent heart disease, and diabetes since they can contribute to development of nephritis.

Home

10. Septicemia

  • Administering antibiotics, which are useful to control a variety of bacteria intravenously (IV)

  • Giving patients supportive care such as oxygen as well as intravenous fluids.

  • In case of low blood pressure even after receiving intravenous fluids, a vasopressor medication may be given to constrict blood vessels and help to rise blood pressure.

  • Administering antiviral medication in case of viral infections.

Inpatient and outpatient facility

Surgical operation to remove infection sources like collections of pus.

Theatre

Treating the primary infection source such as infected wound or abscess with potent antibiotics to hinder bacteria from entering the bloodstream.

Hospital or home

Themost effective treatment option for the potential causes of death

Heartdisease

Itis advisable to prevent heart disease because it is costly to treatit. The activities that are necessary to prevent this disease arevery cheap, for instance taking a high-fibre, low-fat, low-sugardiet, exercising regularly, and avoiding alcohol consumption.However, if it starts developing, one should seek medical treatmentin time. This kind of treatment involves administering antibioticsand is less costly and offers the best quality of care. There is awide variety of medicines that are helpful to widen the arteries orlower blood pressure and prevent heart failure. If this diseasebecomes severe, doctors would recommend surgical treatment.Unfortunately, a heart surgery is very costly.

Cancer

Preventionis the most cost-effective way of handling a disease since thenecessary activities do not cost anything [ CITATION Ada01 l 1033 ].Preventing cancer is very cost-effective since it involves avoidingsmoking tobacco, avoiding exposure to secondhand smoking andmaterials that proliferate cancer cells, limiting intake of processedmeat, avoiding excessive consumption of alcohol, and maintaining ahealthy diet. However, if one develops cancer, the most effective wayto treat it is to seek medication in time. Various drugs, which workdifferently can be effective to kill more cancer cells and help tolower the risk of cancer cells becoming more resistant to aparticular chemo drug. Medical treatment is very cost-effective asand offers the best quality of care.

Stroke(cerebrovascular diseases)

Preventingstroke is the most effective way to shield an individual from thehigh costs associated with its treatment (medical and surgical). Thatis because prevention involves activities that don’t cost anything,for example, exercising regularly, keeping a healthy weight,controlling blood pressure, avoiding smoking and alcohol consumption,and taking healthy diet (more fruits, vegetables, grains, and foodswith less cholesterol and sugar. However, if one develops stroke, themost cost-effective way to treat it is undergoing early medicaltreatment. This treatment involves administering AlteplaseIV r-tPAintravenously in the patient’s arm and helps to save life andminimize the long-term impact of stroke if carried out in time. Ifadministered within three hours after having a stroke, the chances offull recovery are very high. Therefore, one would not have to undergothe costly surgery involved in treating severe stroke [ CITATION Ame17 l 1033 ].

Chroniclower respiratory diseases

Themost cost effective way of dealing with chronic lower respiratorydiseases is prevention. That involves avoiding smoking since smokingis the primary cause. Smoking damages the lungs’ air sacs (alveoli)resulting in breathing difficulties. It can also cause the airways toswell up and fill with mucus leading to breathing problems. It costsnothing to avoid stop or avoid smoking. However, if one develops thisdisease, the most cost effective treatment is medical care. Theantibiotics administered are way cheaper than the cost of undergoingsurgery therefore, early medical care is advisable.

Accidents

Eventhough accidents are unintended injuries, the most effective way tominimize the risk of sustaining severe injuries or passing on as aresult of an accident is prevention. Some of the primary componentsof prevention of accidents are those inclined towards road safety,for instance, fastening seatbelts, and improving awareness of therisks of driving under the influence of alcohol, not using the mobilephone while driving, or avoiding driving at high speeds. Thesemeasures are less costly as compared to medical treatment or surgicaltreatment one would undergo in the event of a severe accident.

Alzheimer`sdisease

Itis challenging to determine the most effective actions to preventdevelopment of Alzheimer’s disease since researchers have not yetbeen able to identify its main causes. Nonetheless, doctors recommendtaking certain steps, which prevent getting diseases that are linkedwith high risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. These diseasesare vascular dementia and cardiovascular disease. It is advisable totake healthy and balanced diets, exercise regularly, stop smoking,minimize alcohol consumption, and avoid gaining weight to remainhealthy to prevent these diseases. It is also imperative to have theblood pressure checked and controlled via routine health tests. Forsomeone who has diabetes, it is recommended to take medication asprescribed by the doctor [ CITATION Alz17 l 1033 ].

Furthermore,there are no medicines specifically for treating Alzheimer`s diseaseor slow down its progression. The only drugs available can onlyalleviate symptoms temporarily or retard their progression.Researchers are currently working on ways of treating this disease.Alzheimer`s disease disrupts the communication network of the brainby destroying synapses and killing neurons therefore, certain drugshave been developed to aid this communication process. Cholinesteraseinhibitors such as Galantamine,Rivastigmine, andDonepezilwork by delaying the process responsible for destroying the primaryneurotransmitter of the nervous system. N-methyl-D-aspartatereceptor antagonistssuch as memantinework by regulating the functioning of glutamate, a vitalneurotransmitter in the brain that is involved in memory and learning[ CITATION Joh123 l 1033 ].

Diabetes

Themost effective method of handling this disease is prevention sincepreventing a disease costs almost nothing [ CITATION Ada01 l 1033 ].Diabetesdevelops when the body is not able to produce or use insulin the wayit should resulting in high levels of blood sugar levels in the body.Therefore, it is highly advisable to maintain a lifestyle that willensure the amount of sugar in the blood is normal, for instance,maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly, taking a dietthat has less fat and sugars, and avoiding smoking and excessiveconsumption of alcohol [ CITATION Koe04 l 1033 ].Maintaining such a lifestyle is very cheap and convenient.

Ifone develops diabetes, they will be forced to have insulin injections(medical treatment) for the rest of their lives to stimulate sugarbreakdown by the body and maintain healthy sugar levels. However, itis not possible to adequately control this disease by a medicalcourse of therapy, particularly when the other main risk factors forcardiovascular disease are present. That makes surgical treatment(Bariatric surgery) the most appropriate treatment for cases wherebytreatment using medical therapies is not successful. Furthermore,this surgical operation is relatively cost effective (ASMBS, 2017).

Pneumonia

Themost effective treatment of this disease is medical treatment. Thistreatment entails curing the infection as well as avertingcomplications. Individuals suffering from pneumonia that iscommunity-acquired can undergo treatment at home by taking prescribeddrugs. Despite the fact that most symptoms disappear within few weeksor days, the feeling of fatigue can continue for even a month.Healthcare providers offer treatments depending on the severity aswell as the type of the pneumonia, the overall health, and the age ofan individual. The treatment options include administeringantibiotics, pain relievers, or cough medicine. Antibiotics curebacterial pneumonia though it might take quite a while to ascertainthe type of bacteria causing this disease and to prescribe the mosteffective antibiotic. Cough drugs can be prescribed to calm cough tohelp an individual to rest since coughing helps to move fluids fromthe lungs. Fever or pain relievers such as acetaminophen, ibuprofen,and aspirin. If symptoms become more severe, a doctor may administerantibiotics as well as fluids intravenously via drips. In case oneneeds breathing assistance, admission to an intensive care unit to beput on a breathing machine (ventilator) is recommended. This methodis also more cost effective than surgical treatment.

Nephritis

Surgicaltreatment (kidney transplant) offers the best quality of care forthis disease since it is more efficient than the other treatmentoptions such as hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Hemodialysis isnormally carried out about thrice a week, either at home or in thehospital. Peritoneal dialysis, on the other hand, is usually donemany times a day or overnight at home. Unless a kidney transplant isdone, dialysis has to be done forever. Without a doubt, that wouldcost a fortune. Successful kidney transplants normally allow patientsto live the way they were living prior to developing the kidneydisease. Besides, studies indicate that individuals who haveundergone kidney transplants are likely to live longer and healthierlives than those on dialysis (National Kidney Foundation, 2017).Surgical treatment is also the most preferred kind of treatment fornephritis since there is no specific medical treatment for kidneydiseases. The available medications only relieve its symptoms andprevent them from aggravating. The drug offered depends on itsseverity. General practitioners prescribe certain drugs to controlproblems associated with kidney disease for example high bloodpressure, anemia, water retention, high cholesterol, bone problems,and glomerulonephritis [ CITATION Nat17 l 1033 ].

Septicemia

Themost efficient method of handling septicemia involves treatment ofthe primary infection source such as infected wounds or abscessadequately and with potent antibiotics to prevent bacteria fromentering the bloodstream. That helps to prevent the diseases.Nonetheless, if one develops this disease, it is advisable to seekearly medical treatment because the moment it becomes severe,surgical treatment would be required, and it is very costly. The mostcost-effective method of treatment septicemia is medical treatment.It involves administering antibiotics, which are useful to control avariety of bacteria intravenously (IV) and giving patients supportivecare such as oxygen as well as intravenous fluids [ CITATION NHS16 l 1033 ].

References

Adams, M. H., Packa, D. R., Forte, L., Lammon, C. A., Stover, L. M., &amp Barrett, J. C. (2001). Levels of prevention: Restructuring a curriculum to meet future healthcare needs. Nurse Educator, 26(1), 6-8.

Alzheimer`s Association. (2017, January 17). What We Know Today About Alzheimer`s Disease. Retrieved from Alzheimer`s Association: http://www.alz.org/research/science/alzheimers_disease_treatments.asp

American Heart Association. (2017, March 10). Stroke Prevention and Brain Health. Retrieved from American Heart Association: http://www.strokeassociation.org/STROKEORG/AboutStroke/Treatment/Stroke-Treatment_UCM_492017_SubHomePage.jsp

ASMBS. (2017, January 10). Surgery for Diabetes. Retrieved from ASMBS: https://asmbs.org/patients/surgery-for-diabetes

Johns Hopkins Medicine. (2012, December 5). Johns Hopkins Surgeons Implant Brain ‘Pacemaker’ for Alzheimer’s Disease in United States as Part of a Clinical Trial Designed to Slow Memory Loss. Retrieved from Johns Hopkins Medicine: http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/news/media/releases/johns_hopkins_surgeons_implant_brain_pacemaker_for_alzheimers_disease_in_united_states_as_part_of_a_clinical_trial_designed_to_slow_memory_loss

Koelen, M. A., &amp Van Den Ban, A. W. (2004). Health education and health promotion. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers.

National Kidney Foundation. (2017, January 18). Kidney Transplant. Retrieved from National Kidney Foundation: https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/kidney-transplant

NHS. (2016, February 24). Sepsis – Treatment . Retrieved from NHS: http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Blood-poisoning/Pages/Treatment.aspx

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Last updated: 3/24/2020 22:36 a3/p3

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