WildlifeProtection/Land Conservation in the U.S
WildlifeProtection/Land Conservation in the U.S
Wildlifeprotection has become a necessary practice because of the negativeimplications of human activities on the environment. Wildlifeconservation entails protection of wildlife and plants and theirhabitats. The main aim of wildlife conservation is to support thesustainability of nature and protect the environment for futuregenerations. According to the United States Fish and Wildlife Service(2017), the government of the United States through specializedagencies and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) has dedicatedresources to ensure wildlife conservation. Some of the agencies andnon-profit organizations devoted to this endeavor include Conventionon Intentional Trade on Endangered Species (CITES), United NationsEnvironment Programme (UNEP), Food and Agriculture Organization ofthe United Nations (FAO), World Wildlife Fund, United NationsEducational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco). Theseorganizations have been providing intellectual knowledge, practicalguidance, and framework for conservation plans and actions (Hastings,2017). Besides, the government of the United States enacted severallegislations to strengthen its stance wildlife conservation. Some ofthe enactments include Marine Mammal Conservation Act (MMPA),Endangered Species Act (ESA) Endangered Species Act (ESA), Wild BirdConservation Act (WBCA), Multinational Species Conservation Acts,Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), Pelly Amendment, and the LaceyAct. The federal budget, annual state and federal grants, WetlandsReserve program, Conservation Reserve Program and Wildlife HabitatIncentives Program are the main financial sources for the UnitedStates` wildlife. Besides, the sales of hunting and fishing licensesales, stamps, game tags, and excise taxes have been contributingabout 200 million USD annually. It is also worth noting that thegovernment of the United States has been emphasizing on theprotection of endangered species, the wildlife on the verge ofextinction because of threatening human activities, low population ofthose present case, and prepositional or environmental parameters(U.S Fish and Wildlife Service, 2017 Worland, 2015).
Thesedevelopments are certainly outright and justified. The government ofthe United States has been on the forefront to implement legislationson wildlife protection. This position is exemplified by over 100million acres of U.S land that is under conservation. Besides,significant 9 percent of the America continent is under preservationand protection. Wildlife protection serves a critical role inbalancing different aspects of nature. In the 20th century and thepreceding centuries, the government of the United States concentratedmainly on the protection of the major beautiful landscapes, oddplaces, and strange ecosystems than endangered species and uniquewildlife. The government preferred investments in agriculture anddevelopment programs even if the species occupying that area wererich in biodiversity. However, more enactments and internationalorganizations saw significant efforts by the Obama administration toheighten wildlife protection measures.
Theadministration of President Obama was vibrant in ensuring theprotection of wildlife. Protection of regions with rich biodiversitysuch as Everglades and about 12 million acres of Alaskan land thatwas meant for wildlife among other actions are some of the examplesof this level of commitment. Some of the areas that the Obamaadministration has been trying to protect are the Blue RidgeMountains located in North Carolina and the Sierra Nevada Mountainson the coast of California. President Obama`s administration was keenon ensuring the protection of natural habitats by stopping theconstruction of the Keystone XL and Dakota pipelines. The governmentwas also keen on protecting endangered species of plants and wildanimals such as rare species of turtles, the Siberian Tiger, rhinos,bears, and elephants across the world. His administration workedclosely with non-governmental organizations such as CITES and UNESCOto stop poaching, hunting, and destruction of wildlife and theirnatural habitats. The committee worked with internationalorganizations to end trading of wildlife products that were on therise in Asia due to their high demand (U.S Fish and Wildlife Service,2017 Worland, 2015).
Trumpadministration has laid plans to oversee an end to the rampantpoaching of wild animals as well as endangered species, especially inthe United States. The proposed construction of the Mexican wall isintended to prevent movement and poaching of wildlife to Mexico.Trump also plans to reduce regulatory measures to permit domesticmanufacturing (Blake, 2017). For instance, the administration intendsto allow the Dakota and Keystone XL pipeline constructions to beimplemented. However, the government also plans to reduce theworkforce in agencies tasked with protecting wildlife such as theNational Park Service. Moreover, the administration plans to cut downcosts incurred in supporting programs beyond the jurisdiction of theUnited States (WildEarthGuardians, 2017).
Q5.Compare and Contrast the Two Administrations Perspectives
Itis clear that both administrations in one way or another are willingto contribute towards protecting wildlife. However, the Obamaadministration was keen on ensuring both local and internationalprotection of wildlife as opposed to Trump`s government that plans toconcentrate on protecting local wildlife (WildEarthGuardians, 2017).Secondly, Obama`s administration was also keen to work with theinternational community to ensure the protection of wildlife, whileTrump administration tends to isolate the U.S from the internationalcommunity. In addition, the Obama administration implementeddifferent plans to protect all wildlife land and spaces reserved forwildlife on top of protecting rare species. On the other hand,concerning the groundwork being laid, it is clear that the Trumpadministration will compromise the protection of wildlife (Blake,2017).
Q5.What Has Happened Since Your First Write Up?
Theadministration of Trump has implemented various measures that arepredicted to have significant negative implications for wildlifeprofessionals and wildlife. Other changes that are expected to havesignificant effects on wildlife include reducing funding for wildlifeprotection, long-term plans to retrench the federal workforce,discussions that will see the implementation of the Dakota andKeystone XL pipelines and expected impacts of the construction of thesouthern border wall.
TheTrump administration has been enacting different regulations that areexpected to reduce the number of employees in various agenciesincluding agencies tasked with protecting wildlife. The RegulatoryFreeze Pending Review memo of January 20, 2017, sought for theimmediate withdrawal and a 60-days postponement of all legislationsthat had not been published by the Federal Registrar. Besides, therelease of the Presidential Executive Order on Controlling Costs andReducing Regulations also termed as "one in, two out"policy recommends for absolutely zero costs for the financial year2017 (WildEarthGuardians, 2017). Nevertheless, it would be mandatoryfor agencies to revoke two existing regulations to withdraw or offsetany cost related to any newly implemented law in FY2017. As a resultof the changes that have been implemented and those expected tofollow, different groups have aired concerns about the potentialnegative implications of the enactments on wildlife and moreprecisely on the rare species of plant and animals (from theconstruction of pipelines and retrenchment). The groups indicate thatthe new regulations will negatively affect the ability of UnitedStates federal wildlife service to control hunting of rare speciessuch as migratory birds and waterfowls. The Communications Workers ofAmerica, Public Citizen, and the Natural Resources Defense Councilhave sued President Trump in over the policies and regulations thatsought to trim the workforce in wildlife agencies because such a stepwould hurt wildlife (Blake, 2017 Hastings, 2017).
Thedirective by President Trump (Presidential memorandum of January 23)to trim agency workforce has had negative impacts on the operationsand performance of those companies. The directive also permittedhiring of short-term and seasonal employees by firms that have seenan increase in the workload. Organizations that have been affected bythe directive include the National Park Service. Moreover, thesituation is expected to worsen with the implementation workforcereduce plan.
TheTrump administration has given the Keystone XL (TransCanadaCorporation), and the Dakota pipeline project sponsors a chance toresubmit its application to allow the construction projects toproceed. The president followed with further streamlining,permitting, and reducing all legislations that were a burden todomestic manufacturing and development. The president affirmed thatthe constructions stand to benefit the country economically. However,National Wildlife Federation, National Resources Defense Council andSierra Club, and Pipeline Safety Trust argue that the oilconstructions and production initiatives will have adverse effects onmany endangered species such as the whooping crane. They areconcerned that the constructions would jeopardize ecosystems, thegeneral public health and sources of water for wildlife (Blake, 2017Worland, 2015).
Althoughthe building of the wall on the southern boundary is yet to begin, itis expected to have both negative and positive implications forwildlife. The border will be vital in protecting wildlife and naturalecosystems from encroachment by poachers from the neighboringcountries. On the other hand, the construction of the wall isexpected to interfere with the natural habitat and free migration ofwildlife in adverse weather conditions or climatic and seasonalchanges. Some of the species that would be affected include theMexican gray wolves, desert tortoises, pygmy-owls, and Jaguars.
Severalother measures have been undertaken since the inauguration ofPresident Trump. For instance, the data references to the Council onEnvironmental Quality and Climate Change have been removed from theWhite House Website. As a result, the position of the United Stateson the Paris Agreement that seeks to protect the environment remainsunclear. Besides, different appointments for posts in variousagencies that protect wildlife and the environment have not beenaffected, a move that has affected their operations(WildEarthGuardians, 2017 Hastings, 2017).
Q6.Personal Point of View
Judgingby the performance of different agencies that protect wildlife, morefunding and workforce are needed to enhance their effectiveness andensure the protection of different endangered species. The vastchanges that are being implemented by the Trump administration willincapacitate efforts that had been laid by the Obama administrationtowards protecting wildlife. The Trump administration should increasefunding for wildlife protection and increase the workforce to saveendangered species and their natural habitats, especially as theglobal trade of wildlife products gathers pace across borders.
Alreadyseverely affected by widespread climatic changes, a further shortagein wildlife personnel, funding, and construction of oil pipelineswill adversely affect wildlife and land conservation initiatives.These risk factors will accelerate the extinction of endangeredspecies and their natural habitats. The heightened poaching andhunting activities will be renewed, subverting the essence ofenvironmental protection programs.
Blake,J.(2017),TrumpAadministration Qquickly Iimplements Eexecutive Aactions.Retrieved fromhttp://wildlife.org/Trump-administration-quickly-implements-executive-actions/Hastings,L.A. (2017), AnimalWelfare and Wildlife Conservation.Retrievedfrom http://alceehastings.house.gov/issues/issue/?IssueID=100680
U.SFish and Wildlife Service (2017), U.S Conservation Laws.Retrieved fromhttps://www.fws.gov/international/laws-treaties-agreements/us-conservation-laws/
WildEarthGuardians.(2017), New Report Highlights 10 Wildlife Conservation Prioritiesfor the Trump Administration. Retrieved fromhttp://www.wildearthguardians.org/site/News2?page=NewsArticle&id=12823&news_iv_ctrl=1681#.WMpZy7iZtQA
Worland,J. (2015), TheProblem with U.S. Wildlife Protection Efforts.Retrievedfromhttp://time.com/3772207/wilderness-protection-endangered-species/